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COVID-19 effects on diet, sleep, and physical activity among mid- to late-adolescents residing in the deep south in the United States

Stavrinos et al., Journal of Pediatric Nursing, doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2023.06.003
Jun 2023  
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Prospective study tracking sleep, diet, and physical activity for adolescents in the USA before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, showing negative health effects of the pandemic / restrictions.
Study covers sleep, diet, and exercise.
Stavrinos et al., 7 Jun 2023, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, study period 13 March, 2020 - 1 June, 2020. Contact:,,,,,
This PaperExerciseAll
COVID-19 effects on diet, sleep, and physical activity among mid- to late-adolescents residing in the deep south in the United States
PhD Despina Stavrinos, PhD Benjamin Mcmanus, PhD Gerald Mcgwin Jr, PhD Andrea T Underhill, Rachael George, Kaiden Kennedy
Journal of Pediatric Nursing, doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2023.06.003
This study investigated the differential impact of COVID-19 on United States (US) adolescents' physical health as a function of sociodemographic factors over 18 months. It was hypothesized that the impact of COVID-19 and its mitigation efforts on physical health factors would vary by sociodemographic factors. Design and methods: Data were drawn from a longitudinal study in which participants (ages 16 or 18) selfreported sleep, diet, and physical activity over 18months. Participants were enrolled between 2018 and 2022. Participants (n = 190, 73% Black/African American, 53% female) provided 1330 reports over 194 weeks (93 weeks before and 101 weeks after COVID-19 restrictions implementation). Results: Physical health outcomes moderated by demographic factors were measured and assessed over 18 months. Multilevel models and general estimated equations estimated the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on participants' health outcomes. Sleep and physical activity worsened after COVID-19 regardless of moderating factors, but some specific outcomes varied across subgroups. Conclusions: This study diversifies the literature on the impact of COVID-19 and its mitigation measures on adolescents' social health. Further, it is based in the US's Deep South, largely populated by those identifying as Black/ African American or of low socioeconomic status. Both subgroups are underrepresented in US-based health outcomes research. COVID-19 directly and indirectly impacted adolescents' physical health. Practice implications: Understanding if and how COVID-19 impacted adolescents' health will inform nursing practice to adapt to and overcome adverse sequelae to promote positive patient health outcomes.
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