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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

AI-based disease risk score for community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization

Shakibfar et al., iScience, doi:10.1016/j.isci.2023.107027
Jul 2023  
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1st treatment shown to increase risk in November 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.00000029 from 27 studies, but still recommended in 46 countries.
* From meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Pre-COVID model of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) identifying acetaminophen as one of the top 10 predictors for hospitalization.
Authors claim that acetaminophen was not a biologically plausible predictor of CAP, hypothesizing that acetaminophen may be a proxy for other conditions that increase CAP risk, specifically chronic pain.
Although authors claim there is no biological plausibility, there are multiple potential mechanisms including:
- Glutathione depletion - acetaminophen metabolism relies on glutathione. Higher or chronic doses can deplete glutathione levels. Lower glutathione reduces antioxidant defenses and impairs immune cell function.
- Prostaglandin inhibition - acetaminophen inhibits prostaglandins like PGE2 that help regulate immune responses. Reduced prostaglandins could potentially alter immune regulation.
- Disruption of redox balance - in addition to glutathione, acetaminophen may disrupt the redox balance which can impair immune cell function.
- Glycine depletion - conjugating acetaminophen requires glycine. Depletion of glycine can reduce antioxidant production and have immunomodulatory effects.
- Microbiome alteration - acetaminophen exposure might alter the intestinal microbiota in ways that promote inflammation and reduce colonization resistance.
- Cell/tissue injury - even at normal doses, acetaminophen may cause low-grade cell or tissue damage that induces inflammatory and immune effects.
- Fever suppression - by reducing fever through effects on the hypothalamus, acetaminophen could potentially prolong infections.
Acetaminophen is also known as paracetamol, Tylenol, Panadol, Calpol, Tempra, Calprofen, Doliprane, Efferalgan, Grippostad C, Dolo, Acamol, Fevadol, Crocin, and Perfalgan.
Shakibfar et al., 31 Jul 2023, Denmark, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact: maurizio.sessa@sund.ku.dk.
This PaperAcetaminophenAll
AI-based disease risk score for communityacquired pneumonia hospitalization
Saeed Shakibfar, Morten Andersen, Maurizio Sessa
doi:10.1016/j.isci
We developed a disease risk score for CAP hospitalization based on real-world data This tool can help to identify individuals requiring specific clinical management Further studies are needed to investigate the optimal use of our disease risk
Detailed methods are provided in the online version of this paper and include the following: SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION Supplemental information can be found online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2023.107027. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS S.S. wrote the original draft, conceptualized the study, and performed the data analysis. M.A. supervised the study, acquired the funding, and revised the manuscript. M.S. planned the study, performed the data analysis, wrote the original draft, and supervised the study. DECLARATION OF INTERESTS None. INCLUSION AND DIVERSITY We support inclusive, diverse, and equitable conduct of research. KEY RESOURCES TABLE RESOURCE AVAILABILITY Lead contact Further information and requests for data sources should be directed to and will be fulfilled by the lead contact, Maurizio Sessa (maurizio.sessa@sund.ku.dk). Material availability This study did not generate new unique reagents. Data and code availability d All data will be shared upon request to the lead contact. No standardized datatype data were generated in this study. d This study did not generate new code. d Any additional analysis information for this work is available by request to the lead contact. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL AND STUDY PARTICIPANT DETAILS The study does not need ethical approval and patient consent because Danish register-based cohort studies are exempted. Patient records/information before the analysis was pseudonymized. The University of Copenhagen and Statistics..
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Late treatment
is less effective
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