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Influence of Baseline Physical Activity as a Modifying Factor on COVID-19 Mortality: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study

Salgado-Aranda et al., Infectious Diseases and Therapy, doi:10.1007/s40121-021-00418-6
Mar 2022  
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Mortality 83% Improvement Relative Risk Exercise  Salgado-Aranda et al.  Prophylaxis Does physical activity reduce risk for COVID-19? Retrospective 520 patients in Spain (February - April 2020) Lower mortality with higher activity levels (p=0.003) c19early.org Salgado-Aranda et al., Infectious Dise.., Mar 2022 Favorsexercise Favorsinactivity 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Exercise for COVID-19
9th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 66 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 520 COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing significantly lower mortality with a history of physical activity.
risk of death, 83.1% lower, HR 0.17, p = 0.003, high activity levels 4 of 223 (1.8%), low activity levels 41 of 297 (13.8%), NNT 8.3, inverted to make HR<1 favor high activity levels, active vs. sedentary, Cox proportional hazards.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Salgado-Aranda et al., 14 Mar 2022, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 15 authors, study period 15 February, 2020 - 15 April, 2020.
This PaperExerciseAll
Influence of Baseline Physical Activity as a Modifying Factor on COVID-19 Mortality: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study
Ricardo Salgado-Aranda, Nicasio Pérez-Castellano, Ivan Núñez-Gil, A Josué Orozco, Norberto Torres-Esquivel, Jesús Flores-Soler, Ahmed Chamaisse-Akari, Angela Mclnerney, Carlos Vergara-Uzcategui, Lin Wang, Juan J González-Ferrer, David Filgueiras-Rama, Victoria Cañadas-Godoy, Carlos Macaya-Miguel, Julián Pérez-Villacastín
Infectious Diseases and Therapy, doi:10.1007/s40121-021-00418-6
Introduction: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes a severe respiratory disease with a 3% global mortality. In the absence of effective treatment, controlling of risk factors that predispose to severe disease is essential to reduce coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality. Large observational studies suggest that exercise can reduce the risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the baseline physical activity level on COVID-19 mortality Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study that included patients between 18 and 70 years old, diagnosed with COVID-19 and hospitalized in our center between February 15 and April 15, 2020. After discharge all the patients included in the study were contacted by telephone. Baseline physical activity level was estimated using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity Scale questionnaire and patients were divided into two groups for comparison: sedentary patients (group 1) and active patients (group 2). Results: During the study period 552 patients were admitted to our hospital and met the inclusion criteria. Global mortality in group 1 was significantly higher than in group 2 (13.8% vs 1.8%; p \ 0.001). Patients with a sedentary lifestyle had increased COVID-19 mortality independently of other risk factors previously described (hazard ratio 5.91 (1.80-19.41); p = 0.003). Conclusion: A baseline sedentary lifestyle increases the mortality of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. This finding may be of great utility in the prevention of severe COVID-19 disease.
Authorship. All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this article, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given their approval for this version to be published. Disclosures. Ricardo Salgado-Aranda, Nicasio Pe ´rez-Castellano, Ivan Nu ´n ˜ez-Gil, A. Josue Órozco, Norberto Torres-Esquivel, Jesu ´s Flores-Soler, Ahmed Chamaisse-Akari, Angela Mclnerney, Carlos Vergara-Uzcategui, Lin Wang, Juan Jose ´Gonza ´lez-Ferrer, David Filgueiras-Rama, Victoria Can ˜adas-Godoy, Carlos Macaya-Miguel, and Julia ´n Pe ´rez-Villacastı ´n declare that they have no conflicts of interest associated with this manuscript. Compliance with Ethics Guidelines. This study has received approval from Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Clinico San Carlos Hospital under registry number ''20/374-E_COVID'' on 11 May 2020; and it was performed in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964, and its later amendments. All subjects provided informed consent to participate in the study and their consent for publication. Data Availability. The datasets generated and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits any non-commercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you..
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' 'Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013;23(2):215–23.', 'journal-title': 'Scand J Med Sci Sports'}, { 'issue': '6965', 'key': '418_CR32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '450', 'DOI': '10.1038/nature02145', 'volume': '426', 'author': 'W Li', 'year': '2003', 'unstructured': 'Li W, Moore MJ, Vasilieva N, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a ' 'functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature. ' '2003;426(6965):450–4.', 'journal-title': 'Nature'}, { 'key': '418_CR33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '305', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41581-020-0279-4', 'volume': '16', 'author': 'AM South', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'South AM, Tomlinson L, Edmonston D, Hiremath S, Sparks MA. Controversies ' 'of renin–angiotensin system inhibition during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nat ' 'Rev Nephrol. 2020;16:305–57.', 'journal-title': 'Nat Rev Nephrol'}], 'container-title': ['Infectious Diseases and Therapy'], 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s40121-021-00418-6.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40121-021-00418-6/fulltext.html', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s40121-021-00418-6.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 5, 12]], 'date-time': '2021-05-12T19:20:58Z', 'timestamp': 1620847258000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40121-021-00418-6'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 3, 14]]}, 'references-count': 33, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '2', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['418'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-021-00418-6', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2193-8229', '2193-6382'], 'issn-type': [{'value': '2193-8229', 'type': 'print'}, {'value': '2193-6382', 'type': 'electronic'}], 'subject': ['Infectious Diseases', 'Microbiology (medical)'], 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 3, 14]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': '2 January 2021', 'order': 1, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '16 February 2021', 'order': 2, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '14 March 2021', 'order': 3, 'name': 'first_online', 'label': 'First Online', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}]}
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