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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Symp. case 9% Improvement Relative Risk Symp. case (b) 4% Exercise for COVID-19  Saadeh et al.  Prophylaxis Does physical activity reduce risk for COVID-19? Retrospective 587 patients in Sweden (March - June 2020) No significant difference in symptomatic cases Saadeh et al., Aging Clinical and Expe.., Oct 2021 Favors exercise Favors inactivity

Associations of pre-pandemic levels of physical function and physical activity with COVID-19-like symptoms during the outbreak

Saadeh et al., Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, doi:10.1007/s40520-021-02006-7
Oct 2021  
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Exercise for COVID-19
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Retrospective 904 patients in Sweden, showing higher risk of COVID-19-like symptoms with poor muscle strength. Risk was slightly higher for physical inactivity, without statistical significance.
risk of symptomatic case, 9.1% lower, OR 0.91, p = 0.71, high activity levels 362, low activity levels 225, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high activity levels, 2+ symptoms, Table 8, physically active vs. inactive, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of symptomatic case, 3.8% lower, OR 0.96, p = 0.85, high activity levels 362, low activity levels 225, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high activity levels, 1+ symptoms, Table 2, model 2, physically active vs. inactive, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
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Saadeh et al., 30 Oct 2021, retrospective, Sweden, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, study period March 2020 - June 2020.
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Associations of pre-pandemic levels of physical function and physical activity with COVID-19-like symptoms during the outbreak
Marguerita Saadeh, Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga, Davide Liborio Vetrano, Philip Von Rosen, Laura Fratiglioni, Anna-Karin Welmer
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, doi:10.1007/s40520-021-02006-7
Background One's physical function and physical activity levels can predispose or protect from the development of respiratory infections. We aimed to explore the associations between pre-pandemic levels of physical function and physical activity and the development of COVID-19-like symptoms in Swedish older adults. Methods We analyzed data from 904 individuals aged ≥ 68 years from the population-based Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen. COVID-19-like symptoms were assessed by phone interview (March-June 2020) and included fever, cough, sore throat and/or a cold, headache, pain in muscles, legs and joints, loss of taste and/or odor, breathing difficulties, chest pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, and eye inflammation. Muscle strength, mobility, and physical activity were examined in 2016-2018 by objective testing. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models in the total sample and stratifying by age. Results During the first outbreak of the pandemic, 325 (36%) individuals from our sample developed COVID-19-like symptoms. Those with slower performance in the chair stand test had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.1) for presenting with COVID-19-like symptoms compared to better performers, after adjusting for potential confounders. The association was even higher among people aged ≥ 80 years (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.5-4.7). No significant associations were found between walking speed or engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and the likelihood to develop COVID-19-like symptoms. Conclusion Poor muscle strength, a possible indicator of frailty, may predispose older adults to higher odds of developing COVID-19-like symptoms, especially among the oldest-old.
Author contributions M Saadeh and A-K Welmer developed the study concept and design. M Saadeh performed the data analysis and drafted the manuscript. M Saadeh, A-K Welmer, A Calderón-Larrañaga, D L. Vetrano, P von Rosen, and L Fratiglioni interpreted the data. All authors provided critical revisions and approved the final version of the manuscript for submission. Funding Open access funding provided by Karolinska Institute. This work was supported by the funders of The Swedish National study on Aging and Care (SNAC): the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Sweden; the participating county councils and municipalities; and the Swedish Research Council. Specific grants were obtained from the Swedish Research Council (2017-06088); the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (2016-07175); Karolinska Institutet's Strategic Young Scholar Grants in Epidemiology or Biostatistics (SFO-EPI); and the Swedish National Graduate School on Ageing and Health (SWEAH). A specific grant was obtained for this study from the Swedish Research Council (2020-05931). The financial sponsors played no role in the design, execution, analysis and interpretation of data, or writing of the study. Declarations Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Statement of human and animal rights Informed consent The principles of autonomy and integrity, the rule of consent and the demand for research. Consent for publication Not applicable. Open..
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