Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 26% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Putra et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 62 patients in Indonesia (February - September 2020) Lower hospitalization with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.59) Putra et al., European J. Medical and .., Dec 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Levels among Hospitalized and Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital Padang

Putra et al., European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.6.1131
Dec 2021  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Case control study in Indonesia with 31 moderate to critical hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and 31 asymptomatic or mild non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing lower vitamin D levels in the hospitalized patients, without reaching statistical significance.
This is the 111th of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
risk of hospitalization, 25.6% lower, OR 0.74, p = 0.59, high D levels 9 of 31 (29.0%) cases, 11 of 31 (35.5%) controls, NNT 14, case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Putra et al., 10 Dec 2021, retrospective, Indonesia, peer-reviewed, 3 authors, study period February 2020 - September 2020.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Levels among Hospitalized and Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital Padang
Efrida Harika Putra, Efrida, Rismawati Yaswir
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.6.1131
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes immune system dysregulation and an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response. Vitamin D acts as an immunomodulator that enhances the immunity defense. Degression of vitamin D levels affect the severity of COVID-19 infection Our case-control study compared the vitamin D levels between hospitalized and non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients at RSUP dr. M. Djamil, Padang from February to September 2020. Serum vitamin D levels were categorized as deficiency if the level was less than 20 ng/mL based on the Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay. The hospitalized group consisted of moderate to critical COVID-19 patients, whereas the nonhospitalized group consisted of the asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients according to the Indonesian Ministry of Health Guidelines. Data analysis were performed using T-test and Chi-square with a significant pvalue of less than 0.05. The results showed that most subjects were women between 21-60 years. The mean level of vitamin D (ng/mL) in the hospitalized group was lower than in the non-hospitalized group (15.5 ± 7.72 vs. 19.2 ± 14.30; 95% CI -9.509-2.167; p=0.213). Vitamin D deficiency was found more among hospitalized group than the non-hospitalized group, but not statistically significant (71% vs. 64.5%, p=0.566). It indicated the role of vitamin D in preventing immune system hyperactivation causing COVID-19 cytokine storm. This study concluded no difference in vitamin D levels among the study groups. Nevertheless, further research on vitamin D is needed to determine its role and benefits against COVID-19 infection.
Ali, Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression, and severity, Journal of Infection and Public Health
Amrein, Scherkl, Hoffmann, Neuwersch-Sommeregger, Köstenberger et al., Vitamin D deficiency 2.0: an update on the current status worldwide, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Annweiler, Corvaisier, Gautier, Dubée, Legrand et al., Vitamin D supplementation associated to better survival in hospitalized frail elderly COVID-19 patients: the GERIA-COVID quasi-experimental study, Nutrients
Bourgonje, Abdulle, Timens, Hillebrands, Navis et al., Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV-2 and the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Journal of Pathology
Cutolo, Paolino, Smith, Evidence for a protective role of vitamin D in COVID-19, RMD Open
Dankers, Colin, Van Hamburg, Lubberts, Vitamin D in Autoimmunity: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential, Frontiers in Immunology
Edis, Bloukh, Vitamin D deficiency: main factors affecting the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d ([25(OH)D]) status and treatment options, International Journal of Research
Efrida, Rofinda, Dr, Hubungan vitamin D dengan kadar adiponektin, Hs-CRP, dan profil lipid pada subjek berat badan berlebih
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients
Hastie, Pell, Sattar, Vitamin D and COVID-19 infection and mortality in UK Biobank, European Journal of Nutrition
Hernández, Nan, Fernandez-Ayala, García-Unzueta, Hernández-Hernández et al., Vitamin D status in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Ling, Broad, Murphy, Pappachan, Pardesi-Newton et al., High-dose cholecalciferol booster therapy is associated with a reduced risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19: a crosssectional multi-centre observational study, Nutrients
Macaya, Espejo, Valls, Ortiz, Castillo et al., Interaction between age and vitamin D deficiency in severe COVID-19 infection, Nutricion Hospitalaria
Merzon, Tworowski, Gorohovski, Vinker, Cohen et al., Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: an Israeli population-based study, FEBS J
Pinzon, Pradana, Vitamin D deficiency among patients with COVID-19: case series and recent literature review, Troical Medical Health
Pusparini, Defisiensi vitamin D terhadap penyakit, Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pathology and Medical Laboratory
Radujkovic, Hippchen, Tiwari-Heckler, Dreher, Boxberger, Vitamin D deficiency and outcome of COVID-19 patients, Nutrients
Raharusuna, Priambada, Budiarti, Agung, Budi, Patterns of COVID-19 mortality and vitamin D: an indonesian study, SSRN Electronic Journal
Rosa, Malaguarnera, Nicoletti, Malaguarnera, Vitamin D3: a helpful immuno-modulator, Immunology
Turrubiates-Hernández, Sánchez-Zuno, González-Estevez, Hernández-Bello, Macedo-Ojeda et al., Potential immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in the prevention of severe coronavirus disease 2019: An ally for Latin America (Review), International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Wang, Gwee, Pang, Micronutrients deficiency, supplementation and novel coronavirus infections-a systematic review and meta-analysis, Nutrients
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop