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Vitamin D Levels among Hospitalized and Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital Padang

Putra et al., European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.6.1131
Dec 2021  
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Hospitalization 26% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Putra et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 62 patients in Indonesia (February - September 2020) Lower hospitalization with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.59) c19early.org Putra et al., European J. Medical and .., Dec 2021 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19early.org
Case control study in Indonesia with 31 moderate to critical hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and 31 asymptomatic or mild non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing lower vitamin D levels in the hospitalized patients, without reaching statistical significance.
This is the 112th of 198 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 361,397 vigintillion).
risk of hospitalization, 25.6% lower, OR 0.74, p = 0.59, high D levels 9 of 31 (29.0%) cases, 11 of 31 (35.5%) controls, NNT 14, case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Putra et al., 10 Dec 2021, retrospective, Indonesia, peer-reviewed, 3 authors, study period February 2020 - September 2020.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Levels among Hospitalized and Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital Padang
Efrida Harika Putra, Efrida, Rismawati Yaswir
European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.6.1131
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes immune system dysregulation and an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response. Vitamin D acts as an immunomodulator that enhances the immunity defense. Degression of vitamin D levels affect the severity of COVID-19 infection Our case-control study compared the vitamin D levels between hospitalized and non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients at RSUP dr. M. Djamil, Padang from February to September 2020. Serum vitamin D levels were categorized as deficiency if the level was less than 20 ng/mL based on the Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay. The hospitalized group consisted of moderate to critical COVID-19 patients, whereas the nonhospitalized group consisted of the asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients according to the Indonesian Ministry of Health Guidelines. Data analysis were performed using T-test and Chi-square with a significant pvalue of less than 0.05. The results showed that most subjects were women between 21-60 years. The mean level of vitamin D (ng/mL) in the hospitalized group was lower than in the non-hospitalized group (15.5 ± 7.72 vs. 19.2 ± 14.30; 95% CI -9.509-2.167; p=0.213). Vitamin D deficiency was found more among hospitalized group than the non-hospitalized group, but not statistically significant (71% vs. 64.5%, p=0.566). It indicated the role of vitamin D in preventing immune system hyperactivation causing COVID-19 cytokine storm. This study concluded no difference in vitamin D levels among the study groups. Nevertheless, further research on vitamin D is needed to determine its role and benefits against COVID-19 infection.
References
Ali, Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression, and severity, Journal of Infection and Public Health
Amrein, Scherkl, Hoffmann, Neuwersch-Sommeregger, Köstenberger et al., Vitamin D deficiency 2.0: an update on the current status worldwide, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Annweiler, Corvaisier, Gautier, Dubée, Legrand et al., Vitamin D supplementation associated to better survival in hospitalized frail elderly COVID-19 patients: the GERIA-COVID quasi-experimental study, Nutrients
Bourgonje, Abdulle, Timens, Hillebrands, Navis et al., Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV-2 and the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Journal of Pathology
Cutolo, Paolino, Smith, Evidence for a protective role of vitamin D in COVID-19, RMD Open
Dankers, Colin, Van Hamburg, Lubberts, Vitamin D in Autoimmunity: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential, Frontiers in Immunology
Edis, Bloukh, Vitamin D deficiency: main factors affecting the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d ([25(OH)D]) status and treatment options, International Journal of Research
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Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients
Hastie, Pell, Sattar, Vitamin D and COVID-19 infection and mortality in UK Biobank, European Journal of Nutrition
Hernández, Nan, Fernandez-Ayala, García-Unzueta, Hernández-Hernández et al., Vitamin D status in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Ling, Broad, Murphy, Pappachan, Pardesi-Newton et al., High-dose cholecalciferol booster therapy is associated with a reduced risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19: a crosssectional multi-centre observational study, Nutrients
Macaya, Espejo, Valls, Ortiz, Castillo et al., Interaction between age and vitamin D deficiency in severe COVID-19 infection, Nutricion Hospitalaria
Merzon, Tworowski, Gorohovski, Vinker, Cohen et al., Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: an Israeli population-based study, FEBS J
Pinzon, Pradana, Vitamin D deficiency among patients with COVID-19: case series and recent literature review, Troical Medical Health
Pusparini, Defisiensi vitamin D terhadap penyakit, Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pathology and Medical Laboratory
Radujkovic, Hippchen, Tiwari-Heckler, Dreher, Boxberger, Vitamin D deficiency and outcome of COVID-19 patients, Nutrients
Raharusuna, Priambada, Budiarti, Agung, Budi, Patterns of COVID-19 mortality and vitamin D: an indonesian study, SSRN Electronic Journal
Rosa, Malaguarnera, Nicoletti, Malaguarnera, Vitamin D3: a helpful immuno-modulator, Immunology
Turrubiates-Hernández, Sánchez-Zuno, González-Estevez, Hernández-Bello, Macedo-Ojeda et al., Potential immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in the prevention of severe coronavirus disease 2019: An ally for Latin America (Review), International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Wang, Gwee, Pang, Micronutrients deficiency, supplementation and novel coronavirus infections-a systematic review and meta-analysis, Nutrients
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