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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 30% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 20% ICU admission 10% Exercise for COVID-19  Pinto et al.  Prophylaxis Does physical activity reduce risk for COVID-19? Prospective study in Brazil (June - October 2020) Lower mortality (p=0.27) and ventilation (p=0.21), not sig. Pinto et al., J. Sport and Health Scie.., Aug 2021 Favors exercise Favors inactivity

No independent associations between physical activity and clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19

Pinto et al., Journal of Sport and Health Science, doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2021.08.001, NCT04449718
Aug 2021  
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Exercise for COVID-19
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*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 66 studies.
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Prospective analysis of 209 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 outcomes with physical activity. Mortality, ventilation, and ICU results are only provided for activity as a continuous variable.
risk of death, 30.0% lower, OR 0.70, p = 0.27, RR approximated with OR.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 20.0% lower, OR 0.80, p = 0.21, RR approximated with OR.
risk of ICU admission, 10.0% lower, OR 0.90, p = 0.46, RR approximated with OR.
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Pinto et al., 12 Aug 2021, prospective, Brazil, peer-reviewed, survey, 10 authors, study period 2 June, 2020 - 7 October, 2020, trial NCT04449718 (history). Contact:
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No independent associations between physical activity and clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19
Ana J Pinto, Karla F Goessler, Alan L Fernandes, Igor H Murai, Lucas P Sales, Bruna Z Reis, Mayara Diniz Santos, Hamilton Roschel, Rosa M R Pereira, Bruno Gualano
Journal of Sport and Health Science, doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2021.08.001
Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has been postulated to improve, or at least maintain, immunity across the life span. However, the link between physical (in)activity and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains to be established. This small-scale prospective cohort study is nested within a randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the possible associations between PA levels and clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Methods: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (mean age: 54.9 years) were recruited from the Clinical Hospital of the School of Medicine of the University of Sao Paulo (a quaternary referral teaching hospital) and from Ibirapuera Field Hospital, both located in Sao Paulo, Brazil. PA level was assessed using the Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Physical Activity. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay. The secondary outcomes were mortality, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and mechanical ventilation requirement. Results: The median hospital length of stay was 7.0 § 4.0 days, median § IQR; 3.3% of patients died, 13.8% were admitted to the ICU, and 8.6% required mechanical ventilation. Adjusted linear regression models showed that PA indices were not associated with hospital length of stay (work index: b = À0.57 (95% confidence interval (95%CI): À1.80 to 0.65), p = 0.355; sport index: b = 0.43 (95%CI: À0.94 to 1.80), p = 0.536; leisure-time index: b = 1.18 (95%CI: À0.22 to 2.59), p = 0.099; and total activity index: b = 0.20 (95%CI: À0.48 to 0.87), p = 0.563). None of the PA indices were associated with mortality, admission to the ICU, or mechanical ventilation requirement (all p > 0.050). Conclusion: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, PA did not independently associate with hospital length of stay or any other clinically relevant outcomes. These findings should be interpreted as meaning that, among already hospitalized patients with more severe forms of COVID-19, being active is a potential protective factor likely outweighed by a cluster of comorbidities (e.g., type 2 diabetes, hypertension, weight excess) and older age, suggesting that the benefit of PA against the worsening of COVID-19 may vary across stages of the disease.
Authors' contributions AJP participated in conception and design, participants' recruitment, data collection, analysis and interpretation, statistical analysis, and manuscript writing; KFG participated in conception and design, participants' recruitment, data collection, analysis and interpretation, and manuscript revision; ALF, IHM, LPS, BZR, and MDS, participated in participants' recruitment, data collection, and manuscript revision; HR participated in data analysis and interpretation, statistical analysis, and manuscript revision; RMRP participated in data analysis and interpretation, obtaining funding, and manuscript revision; BG participated in conception and design, data analysis and interpretation, obtaining funding, and manuscript writing. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript, and agree with the order of presentation of the authors. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Damiot, Pinto, Turner, Gualano, Immunological implications of physical inactivity among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic, Gerontology
De Souza, Motta-Santos, Soares, Association of physical activity levels and the prevalence of COVID-19-associated hospitalization, J Sci Med Sport
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Hamer, 'donovan, Stamatakis, Lifestyle risk factors, obesity and infectious disease mortality in the general population: Linkage study of 97,844 adults from England and Scotland, Prev Med
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