Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All hydrogen peroxide studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHydrogen PeroxideHydrogen Per.. (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Potential Role of Oral Rinses Targeting the Viral Lipid Envelope in SARS-CoV-2 Infection

O’Donnell et al., Function, doi:10.1093/function/zqaa002
Jun 2020  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
19th treatment shown to reduce risk in May 2021
*, now known with p = 0.029 from 7 studies.
Lower risk for viral clearance.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Review of the mechanisms of action and studies supporting oral rinsing for the prevention of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, including chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and povidone-iodine.
See Ting et al. for another review covering hydrogen peroxide for COVID-19.
Review covers hydrogen peroxide and povidone-iodine.
O’Donnell et al., 5 Jun 2020, peer-reviewed, 12 authors.
This PaperHydrogen Per..All
Potential Role of Oral Rinses Targeting the Viral Lipid Envelope in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Valerie B O’donnell, David Thomas, Richard Stanton, Jean-Yves Maillard, Robert C Murphy, Simon A Jones, Ian Humphreys, Michael J O Wakelam, Christopher Fegan, Matt P Wise, Albert Bosch, Syed A Sattar
Function, doi:10.1093/function/zqaa002
Emerging studies increasingly demonstrate the importance of the throat and salivary glands as sites of virus replication and transmission in early COVID-19 disease. SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus, characterized by an outer lipid membrane derived from the host cell from which it buds. While it is highly sensitive to agents that disrupt lipid biomembranes, there has been no discussion about the potential role of oral rinsing in preventing transmission. Here, we review known mechanisms of viral lipid membrane disruption by widely available dental mouthwash components that include ethanol, chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and povidone-iodine. We also assess existing formulations for their potential ability to disrupt the SARS-CoV-2 lipid envelope, based on their concentrations of these agents, and conclude that several deserve clinical evaluation. We highlight that already published research on other enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses, directly supports the idea that oral rinsing should be considered as a potential way to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Research to test this could include evaluating existing or specifically tailored new formulations in well-designed viral inactivation assays, then in clinical trials. Population-based interventions could be undertaken with available mouthwashes, with active monitoring of outcome to determine efficacy. This is an under-researched area of major clinical need.
Conflict of interest statement None declared.
Ahl, Chen, Perkins, Interdigitation-fusion: a new method for producing lipid vesicles of high internal volume, Biochim Biophys Acta
Astani, Reichling, Schnitzler, Comparative study on the antiviral activity of selected monoterpenes derived from essential oils, Phytother Res
Ather, Patel, Ruparel, Diogenes, Hargreaves, Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19): implications for clinical dental care, J Endod
Barry, Gawrisch, Effects of ethanol on lipid bilayers containing cholesterol, gangliosides, and sphingomyelin, Biochemistry
Bernstein, Schiff, Echler, Prince, Feller et al., In vitro virucidal effectiveness of a 0.12%-chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse, J Dent Res
Bonesvoll, Lokken, Rolla, Paus, Retention of chlorhexidine in the human oral cavity after mouth rinses, Arch Oral Biol
Boni, Minchey, Perkins, Curvature dependent induction of the interdigitated gel phase in DPPC vesicles, Biochim Biophys Acta
Brown, Laboratory evaluation of selected disinfectants as virucidal agents against porcine parvovirus, pseudorabies virus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus, Am J Vet Res
Cai, Chen, Seth, Furukawa, Compans et al., Inhibition of influenza infection by glutathione, Free Radic Biol Med
Cheung, Wong, Cheung, Liang, Lam et al., Differential actions of chlorhexidine on the cell wall of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, PLoS One
Chi, Wu, Mechanism of hemolysis of red blood cell mediated by ethanol, Biochim Biophys Acta
Cluett, Machamer, The envelope of vaccinia virus reveals an unusual phospholipid in Golgi complex membranes, J Cell Sci
Dennison, Meredith, Shillitoe, Caffesse, The antiviral spectrum of Listerine antiseptic, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
Eggers, Infectious disease management and control with povidone iodine, Infect Dis Ther
Eggers, Koburger-Janssen, Eickmann, Zorn, In vitro bactericidal and virucidal efficacy of povidone-iodine gargle/mouthwash against respiratory and oral tract pathogens, Infect Dis Ther
Feres, Figueiredo, Faveri, Stewart, De Vizio, The effectiveness of a preprocedural mouthrinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride in reducing bacteria in the dental office, J Am Dent Assoc
Ferretti, Raybould, Brown, Chlorhexidine prophylaxis for chemotherapy-and radiotherapy-induced stomatitis: a randomized double-blind trial, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol
Firquet, Beaujard, Lobert, Survival of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses on inanimate surfaces, Microbes Environ
Fleischer, Zambrano, Fleischer, Biochemical characterization of the Golgi complex of mammalian cells, J Supramol Struct
Garoff, Simons, Dobberstein, Assembly of the Semliki Forest virus membrane glycoproteins in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in vitro, J Mol Biol
Gerl, Sampaio, Urban, Quantitative analysis of the lipidomes of the influenza virus envelope and MDCK cell apical membrane, J Cell Biol
Harcourt, Tamin, Lu, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from patient with 2019 novel coronavirus disease, United States, Emerg Infect Dis, doi:10.3201/eid2606.200516
Hornick, Hamilton, Spaziani, Enders, Havel, Isolation and characterization of multivesicular bodies from rat hepatocytes: an organelle distinct from secretory vesicles of the Golgi apparatus, J Cell Biol
Howell, Palade, Hepatic Golgi fractions resolved into membrane and content subfractions, J Cell Biol
Hulkower, Casanova, Rutala, Weber, Sobsey, Inactivation of surrogate coronaviruses on hard surfaces by health care germicides, Am J Infect Control
Hunt, Jones, A 1H-NMR investigation of the effects of ethanol and general anaesthetics on ion channels and membrane fusion using unilamellar phospholipid membranes, Biochim Biophys Acta
Jung, Callaci, Lauing, Alcohol exposure and mechanisms of tissue injury and repair, Alcohol Clin Exp Res
Kalvodova, Sampaio, Cordo, Ejsing, Shevchenko et al., The lipidomes of vesicular stomatitis virus, Semliki Forest virus, and the host plasma membrane analyzed by quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry, J Virol
Kampf, Todt, Pfaender, Steinmann, Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents, J Hosp Infect
Kapadia, Chisari, Hepatitis C virus RNA replication is regulated by host geranylgeranylation and fatty acids, Proc Natl Acad Sci
Kariwa, Fujii, Takashima, Inactivation of SARS coronavirus by means of povidone-iodine, physical conditions and chemical reagents, Dermatology
Kean, Grant, Angeletti, Plasma membrane translocation of fluorescent-labeled phosphatidylethanolamine is controlled by transcription regulators, PDR1 and PDR3, J Cell Biol
Keenan, Morre, Phospholipid class and fatty acid composition of Golgi apparatus isolated from rat liver and comparison with other cell fractions, Biochemistry
Kohn, Collins, Cleveland, Guidelines for infection control in dental health-care settings-2003, MMWR Recomm Rep
Komatsu, Guy, Rowe, Effect of unilamellar vesicle size on ethanol-induced interdigitation in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, Chem Phys Lipids
Komatsu, Okada, Effects of ethanol on permeability of phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol mixed liposomal membranes, Chem Phys Lipids
Komatsu, Okada, Ethanol-induced aggregation and fusion of small phosphatidylcholine liposome: participation of interdigitated membrane formation in their processes, Biochim Biophys Acta
Komatsu, Okada, Increased permeability of phaseseparated liposomal membranes with mixtures of ethanolinduced interdigitated and non-interdigitated structures, Biochim Biophys Acta
Kratzel, Todt, V'kovski, Efficient inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by WHO-recommended hand rub formulations and alcohols, BioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.10.986711
Kraus, Perry, Nickerson, Salivary catalase and peroxidase values in normal subjects and in persons with periodontal disease, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol
Krijnse-Locker, Ericsson, Rottier, Griffiths, Characterization of the budding compartment of mouse hepatitis virus: evidence that transport from the RER to the Golgi complex requires only one vesicular transport step, J Cell Biol
Kuo, Wang, Wang, Li, Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of propolis mouthwash in cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis, Support Care Cancer
Li, Pei, Chen, Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2), Science
Liu, Yan, Wan, Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30196-1
Liu, Yang, Zhang, Clinical and biochemical indexes from 2019-nCoV infected patients linked to viral loads and lung injury, Sci China Life Sci
Ly, Longo, The influence of short-chain alcohols on interfacial tension, mechanical properties, area/molecule, and permeability of fluid lipid bilayers, Biophys J
Mcconnell, Schullery, Se, Phospholipidvesiclefusion and drug loading: temperature, solute and cholesterol effects, and, a rapid preparationfor solute-loadedvesicles, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Meiller, Silva, Ferreira, Jabra-Rizk, Kelley et al., Efficacy of Listerine antiseptic in reducing viral contamination of saliva, J Clin Periodontol
Meng, Hua, Bian, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): emerging and future challenges for dental and oral medicine, J Dent Res
Moreau, Cassagne, Phospholipid trafficking and membrane biogenesis, Biochim Biophys Acta
Munger, Bajad, Coller, Shenk, Rabinowitz, Dynamics of the cellular metabolome during human cytomegalovirus infection, PLoS Pathog
Nagatake, Ahmed, Oishi, Prevention of respiratory infections by povidone-iodine gargle, Dermatology
Nambi, Rowe, Mcintosh, Studies of the ethanolinduced interdigitated gel phase in phosphatidylcholines using the fluorophore 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, Biochemistry
Nieto-Garai, Glass, Bunn, Lipidomimetic compounds act as HIV-1 entry inhibitors by altering viral membrane structure, Front Immunol
O'donnell, None
O'donnell, None
Oh, Yu, Ko, Analysis of ethanol effects on corneal epithelium, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
Omidbakhsh, Sattar, Broad-spectrum microbicidal activity, toxicologic assessment, and materials compatibility of a new generation of accelerated hydrogen peroxide-based environmental surface disinfectant, Am J Infect Control
Pan, Zhang, Yang, Poon, Wang, Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30113-4
Peiris, Yuen, Osterhaus, Stohr, The severe acute respiratory syndrome, N Engl J Med
Peng, Xu, Li, Cheng, Zhou et al., Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice, Int J Oral Sci
Popkin, Zilka, Dimaano, Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) exhibits potent, rapid activity against influenza viruses in vitro and in vivo, Pathog Immun
Pratelli, Colao, Role of the lipid rafts in the life cycle of canine coronavirus, J Gen Virol
Rahimi, Lazarou, Late-onset allergic reaction to povidone-iodine resulting in vulvar edema and urinary retention, Obstet Gynecol
Ramalingam, Cai, Wong, Antiviral innate immune response in non-myeloid cells is augmented by chloride ions via an increase in intracellular hypochlorous acid levels, Sci Rep
Ramalingam, Graham, Dove, Morrice, Sheikh, A pilot, open labelled, randomised controlled trial of hypertonic saline nasal irrigation and gargling for the common cold, Sci Rep
Retamal-Valdes, Soares, Stewart, Effectiveness of a pre-procedural mouthwash in reducing bacteria in dental aerosols: randomized clinical trial, Braz Oral Res
Roberts, Lloyd, Virus inactivation by protein denaturants used in affinity chromatography, Biologicals
Rowe, Thermodynamic reversibility of phase transitions. Specific effects of alcohols on phosphatidylcholines, Biochim Biophys Acta
Sakai, Shimbo, Omata, Cost-effectiveness of gargling for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, BMC Health Serv Res
Saknimit, Inatsuki, Sugiyama, Yagami, Virucidal efficacy of physico-chemical treatments against coronaviruses and parvoviruses of laboratory animals, Jikken Dobutsu
Salimi, Johnson, Flores, The lipid membrane of HIV-1 stabilizes the viral envelope glycoproteins and modulates their sensitivity to antibody neutralization, J Biol Chem
Sanchez, Lagunoff, Viral activation of cellular metabolism, Virology
Sands, Auperin, Snipes, Extreme sensitivity of enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex, to long-chain unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols, Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Satomura, Kitamura, Kawamura, Prevention of upper respiratory tract infections by gargling: a randomized trial, Am J Prev Med
Sattar, Springthorpe, Karim, Loro, Chemical disinfection of non-porous inanimate surfaces experimentally contaminated with four human pathogenic viruses, Epidemiol Infect
Shirai, Kanno, Tsuchiya, Mitsubayashi, Seki, Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses, J Vet Med Sci
Shiraishi, Nakagawa, Evaluation of the bactericidal activity of povidone-iodine and commercially available gargle preparations, Dermatology
Siddharta, Pfaender, Vielle, Virucidal activity of World Health Organization-recommended formulations against enveloped viruses, including zika, ebola, and emerging coronaviruses, J Infect Dis
Simons, Garoff, The budding mechanisms of enveloped animal viruses, J Gen Virol
Slater, Huang, Interdigitated bilayer membranes, Prog Lipid Res
Slater, Huang, Structure of biological membranes
Sonmez, Ince, Yalcin, The effect of alcohols on red blood cell mechanical properties and membrane fluidity depends on their molecular size, PLoS One
Sorensen, Skovsgaard, Bork, Damstrup, Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of chlorhexidine prophylaxis for 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis with nonblinded randomized comparison to oral cooling (cryotherapy) in gastrointestinal malignancies, Cancer
Staal, Roederer, Herzenberg, Herzenberg, Intracellular thiols regulate activation of nuclear factor kappa B and transcription of human immunodeficiency virus, Proc Natl Acad Sci
Swanson, A state-based regression model for estimating substate life expectancy, Demography
Tamin, Queen, Paden, Isolation and growth characterization of novel full length and deletion mutant human MERS-CoV strains from clinical specimens collected during 2015, J Gen Virol
To, Tsang, Leung, Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study, Lancet Infect Dis
Tooze, Tooze, Infection of AtT20 murine pituitary tumour cells by mouse hepatitis virus strain A59: virus budding is restricted to the Golgi region, Eur J Cell Biol
Trandum, Westh, Jorgensen, Mouritsen, Association of ethanol with lipid membranes containing cholesterol, sphingomyelin and ganglioside: a titration calorimetry study, Biochim Biophys Acta
Tyulina, Huentelman, Prokopieva, Boldyrev, Johnson, Does ethanol metabolism affect erythrocyte hemolysis?, Biochim Biophys Acta
Tyulina, Prokopieva, Dodd, In vitro effects of ethanol, acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters on human erythrocytes, Alcohol Alcohol
Van Doremalen, Bushmaker, Morris, Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1, N Engl J Med
Van Meer, Lipids of the Golgi membrane, Trends Cell Biol
Varia, Wilson, Sarwal, Investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, Canada, CMAJ
Veitz-Keenan, Ferraiolo, Oral care with chlorhexidine seems effective for reducing the incidence of ventilatorassociated pneumonia, Evid Based Dent
Walsh, Safety issues relating to the use of hydrogen peroxide in dentistry, Aust Dent J
Wang, Tong, Chang, Wang, Zhang et al., Effects of alcohol on intestinal epithelial barrier permeability and expression of tight junction-associated proteins, Mol Med Rep
Wo ¨lfel, Corman, Guggemos, Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019, Nature, doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2196-x
Wolff, Sattar, Adegbunrin, Tetro, Environmental survival and microbicide inactivation of coronaviruses
Wood, Payne, The action of three antiseptics/disinfectants against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, J Hosp Infect
Wrapp, Wang, Corbett, Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation, Science
Xiao, Deng, Lv, Hydrogen peroxide induce human cytomegalovirus replication through the activation of p38-MAPK signaling pathway, Viruses
Xu, Li, Gan, Du, Yao, Salivary glands: potential reservoirs for COVID-19 asymptomatic infection, J Dent Res, doi:10.1177/0022034520918518
Yan, Chu, Yang, Characterization of the lipidomic profile of human coronavirus-infected cells: implications for lipid metabolism remodeling upon coronavirus replication, Viruses
Zou, Ruan, Huang, SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients, N Engl J Med
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop