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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 2% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 27% Improvement 6% Discharge 5% N-acetylcysteine  Mousapour et al.  LATE TREATMENT  DB RCT Is late treatment with N-acetylcysteine beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 83 patients in Iran Trial underpowered for serious outcomes Mousapour et al., Gastroenterology and.., Jun 2022 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control

Efficacy and Safety of Acetylcysteine for the Prevention of Liver Injury in Covid-19 Intensive Care Unit Patients Under Treatment with Remdesivir: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial: Prevention of liver injury in severe Covid-19 pneumonia

Mousapour et al., Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench, doi:10.22037/ghfbb.v15i3.2565, IRCT20210726051995N1
Jun 2022  
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14th treatment shown to reduce risk in February 2021
*, now known with p = 0.000034 from 24 studies, recognized in 3 countries.
Lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, and cases.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
RCT 83 severe COVID-19 pnuemonia patients in Iran, 42 treated with acetylcysteine, showing no significant difference in clinical outcomes. All patients received remdesivir, famotidine, and vitamin C. More patients were at baseline category 4+ in the treatment group - 18 vs. 12. The trial focused on preventing liver injury in patients treated with remdesivir, showing improved AST/ALT levels with acetylcysteine.
risk of death, 2.4% lower, RR 0.98, p = 1.00, treatment 4 of 42 (9.5%), control 4 of 41 (9.8%), NNT 430, day 14.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 26.8% lower, RR 0.73, p = 0.57, treatment 6 of 42 (14.3%), control 8 of 41 (19.5%), NNT 19, day 14.
risk of no improvement, 6.1% lower, RR 0.94, p = 0.82, treatment 25 of 42 (59.5%), control 26 of 41 (63.4%), NNT 26, day 14.
risk of no hospital discharge, 5.4% lower, RR 0.95, p = 0.80, treatment 31 of 42 (73.8%), control 32 of 41 (78.0%), NNT 24, day 14.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Mousapour et al., 20 Jun 2022, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Iran, peer-reviewed, mean age 62.1, 5 authors, trial IRCT20210726051995N1. Contact:
This PaperN-acetylcys..All
Efficacy and safety of acetylcysteine for the prevention of liver injury in COVID-19 intensive care unit patients under treatment with remdesivir
Pouria Mousapour, Ramin Hamidi Farahani, Reza Mosaed, Ali Asgari, MD Ebrahim Hazrati
Aim: The present double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial evaluated prophylactic use of acetylcysteine for the prevention of liver injury in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia under treatment with remdesivir. Background: Liver injury is reportedly common in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and can occur not only as a result of disease progression, but as an iatrogenic reaction to remdesivir. Methods: A total of 83 adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were randomly assigned in parallel groups to receive either acetylcysteine or placebo. All the patients received standard care according to institutional protocols, including remdesivir for a total of five days. One gram acetylcysteine was administered intravenously every 12 hours for 42 patients, and 41 patients received the same volume of 0.9% sodium chloride as placebo (Trial Registration: identifier, IRCT20210726051995N1). Results: After 5 days, median aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were significantly lower in the acetylcysteine than in the placebo group. Of those who received the placebo, 30 (73.2%), 4 (9.7%), and 3 (7.3%) patients had serum AST levels elevated between 1-2.5, 2.5-5, and over 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), respectively; while in the acetylcysteine group, 33 (78.6%) and 0 patients had AST levels between 1-2.5 and over 2.5 times ULN, respectively (p-value=0.037). In the acetylcysteine group, 23 (54.8%), 1 (2.4%), and 1 (2.4%) patient had serum ALT levels elevated between 1-2.5, 2.5-5, and over 5 times ULN, respectively; in the placebo group, however, 24 (58.5%), 7 (17.1%), and 1 (2.4%) patient had serum ALT levels between 1-2.5, 2.5-5, and over 5 times ULN,. Conclusion: Intravenous administration of acetylcysteine significantly prevents liver transaminases elevation and liver injury in seriously ill COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir.
Conflict of interests The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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