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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 61% Improvement Relative Risk Hospitalization time 28% Vitamin D  Mosadegh et al.  LATE TREATMENT  RCT Is late treatment with vitamin D + combined treatments beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 70 patients in Iran (May - July 2020) Lower mortality (p=0.0016) and shorter hospitalization (p=0.001) Mosadegh et al., Microbial Pathogenesis, Sep 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

The effect of Nutrition Bio-shield superfood (NBS) on disease severity and laboratory biomarkers in patients with COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial

Mosadegh et al., Microbial Pathogenesis, doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2022.105792, IRCT20200426047206N1
Sep 2022  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
RCT 70 hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing lower mortality and improved clinical markers with treatment combining vitamins A, B1–B3, B5, B6, B9, C, D, K, and magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, calcium, iron, boron, copper, zinc, omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9. The median age was lower in the treatment group 49 (29–77) vs. 55 (29–81).
Cholecalciferol was used in this study. Meta analysis shows that late stage treatment with calcitriol / calcifediol (or paricalcitol, alfacalcidol, etc.) is more effective than cholecalciferol: 65% [41‑79%] lower risk vs. 39% [26‑49%] lower risk. Cholecalciferol requires two hydroxylation steps to become activated - first in the liver to calcifediol, then in the kidney to calcitriol. Calcitriol, paricalcitol, and alfacalcidol are active vitamin D analogs that do not require conversion. This allows them to have more rapid onset of action compared to cholecalciferol. The time delay for cholecalciferol to increase serum calcifediol levels can be 2-3 days, and the delay for converting calcifediol to active calcitriol can be up to 7 days.
This study is excluded in meta analysis: combination of several treatments showing efficacy in other trials.
Study covers vitamin K, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc.
risk of death, 60.9% lower, RR 0.39, p = 0.002, treatment 9 of 35 (25.7%), control 23 of 35 (65.7%), NNT 2.5.
hospitalization time, 28.2% lower, relative time 0.72, p = 0.001, treatment 35, control 35.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Mosadegh et al., 19 Sep 2022, Single Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Iran, peer-reviewed, median age 48.7, 4 authors, study period 9 May, 2020 - 10 July, 2020, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with vitamins A, B1–B3, B5, B6, B9, C, D, K, and magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, calcium, iron, boron, copper, zinc, omega-3, omega-6, omega-9) - results of individual treatments may vary, trial IRCT20200426047206N1. Contact:
This PaperVitamin DAll
The effect of Nutrition Bio-shield superfood (NBS) on disease severity and laboratory biomarkers in patients with COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial
Mehrdad Mosadegh, Aref Khalkhali, Yousef Erfani, Manije Nezamdoost
Microbial Pathogenesis, doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2022.105792
Background: Nutrition Bio-shield Superfood (NBS) is an organic and viable herbal supplement that could improve the function of the immune system. The present study aims to determine the effect of NBS on disease severity and laboratory biomarkers in patients with COVID-19. Methods: This current study was a randomized, comparative, parallel two-arm and single-blind clinical trial study performed in Tehran, Iran. In total, 70 patients with COVID-19 were included in the present study and assigned to two groups including 1) intervention group (n = 35) and 2) control group (n = 35). All patients included in the intervention group received 4.5 gr daily rate of NBS superfood, three times the daily rate of 1.5 gr for 14 days. In contrast, patients included in the control group received a placebo three times a day for 14 days. The measurement of laboratory parameters including CRP, ESR, D-Dimer, LDH, CPK, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, FBG, WBC count, PLT, and lymphocyte count was performed using standard kits and methods. Moreover, all serum samples were tested to determine the levels of IL-6 and TNF-ɑ using specific commercially available ELISA kits according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Results: A significant decrease in the mean serum level of several variables including CRP (p < 0.001), ESR (p < 0.001), D-Dimer (p = 0.001), LDH (p < 0.001), SGOT (p = 0.002), SGPT (p = 0.019), ALP (p < 0.001), WBC count (p < 0.001), body temperature (p = 0.013), IL-6 (p < 0.001), and TNF-α (p < 0.001) was seen 14 days after intervention from baseline in the intervention group than control group. In contrast, in the intervention group, the significant increase from baseline of lymphocyte percentage (p < 0.001) and oxygen saturation (p < 0.001) was seen 14 days after receiving NBS superfood than the control group. Conclusion: Results showed that the use of NBS superfood had various beneficial effects on COVID-19 disease severity. These results suggest that NBS superfood can be used as an effective natural supplement in the treatment process of COVID-19 disease.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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