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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case, high vs. low dose 69% Improvement Relative Risk Melatonin  Molina-Carballo et al.  Prophylaxis Does melatonin reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 62 patients in Spain Fewer cases with melatonin (not stat. sig., p=0.22) Molina-Carballo et al., Melatonin Rese.., Sep 2023 Favors high dose Favors low dose

The preventive and protective role of melatonin in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a retrospective study

Molina-Carballo et al., Melatonin Research, doi:10.32794/mr112500159
Sep 2023  
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Retrospective 62 patients taking relatively high doses of melatonin since before the pandemic, showing relatively low incidence of COVID-19, and relatively mild cases. There were 7 PCR+ cases, 3 asymptomatic, 3 mild, and one moderate. Patients taking ≥40mg had lower incidence of cases, without statistical significance. There was no control group. A dose response relationship is seen in meta analysis of controlled studies to date:
Daily dose Efficacy Efficacy by dose in COVID-19 melatonin studies (excluding ICU) 0mg 4mg 8mg 12mg 16mg 20mg 24mg -25% 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% December 2023 mixed-effects meta-regression, most serious sufficiently powered outcome
risk of case, 69.1% lower, RR 0.31, p = 0.22, treatment 2 of 35 (5.7%), control 5 of 27 (18.5%), NNT 7.8, ≥40mg vs. <40mg.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Molina-Carballo et al., 30 Sep 2023, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, survey, mean age 58.5, 6 authors.
Contact: (corresponding author),
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The preventive and protective role of melatonin in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a retrospective study
Antonio Molina-Carballo, Antonio Emilio Jerez-Calero, Luisa Fernández-López, María Del Carmen Augustin-Morales, Antonio Muñoz-Hoyos, Ahmad Agil
Melatonin Research, doi:10.32794/mr112500159
This study has investigated the protective role of melatonin against SARS-CoV-2 infection. For this purpose, 62 adults were recruited who were in daily relatively high doses of melatonin intaking, with the particularity that they started taking it before the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and continued to present. A continuous validation process has been carried out with a series of questionnaires to identify the risk factors, whether they were contacts, were infected, if yes, the level of disease severity, need for treatment, hospitalization, etc. According to the dose of melatonin the individuals took/are taking, they were divided into two groups: a) those taking 20 mg (n = 27) and, b) those taking ≥ 40 mg (n = 32). For statistical analysis, the shi2 test and Fisher's exact test were used. The number of infected subjects with positive PCR was 7 (11.9%). Only one required medication, the rest had a very favorable clinical evolution, mild in three cases and asymptomatic in three others. While in their environment this percentage is 22.05% (chi2 = 2.928; p < 0.087). Melatonin offers a good safety profile, is well tolerated and can play an important role in the different levels of COVID-19 prevention.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: Authors declare no condlicts of interests.
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