The difference in the dietary inflammatory index, functional food, and antioxidants intake between COVID -19 patients and healthy persons
Mohajeri et al.
, The difference in the dietary inflammatory index, functional food, and antioxidants intake between COVID -19..
, Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, doi:10.3233/MNM-211521
Retrospective dietary survey analysis of 500 COVID-19 patients and 500 healthy matched controls in Iran, showing that COVID-19 patients had lower daily consumption of vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, zinc, and selenium. IR.ARUMS.REC.1400.008.
Mohajeri et al., 29 Jan 2022, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism xx (2022) x–xx
The difference in the dietary inflammatory
index, functional food, and antioxidants
intake between COVID -19 patients and
Mahsa Mohajeria,b , Reza Mohajeryb,c , Ali Nematia,d,∗ and Farhad Pourfarzia,∗
a Digestive Disease Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran
b Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Ardabil, Iran
c Energy Management Research Center, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
d Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil,
BACKGROUND: The healthy diet is important to maintain immunity against infection. This study aimed to assess and
compare the consumption of functional foods, some antioxidants, and dietary inflammatory index between Iranian COVID-19
patients and healthy persons.
METHODS: This case-control study was conducted between 1000 (500 cases and 500 controls) adults aged 18–65years in
Iran, that were sampling based on the snowball method and their information was collected electronically. The dietary intake
was assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ).
RESULTS: There was a significant difference (p = 0.044) in vitamin D consumption between healthy people and COVID19 patients. Vitamin E intake in healthy participants was significantly (p = 0.041) more than COVID-19 patients. There
was a significant difference in Zinc (p = 0.011), selenium (p = 0.021), and vitamin C (p = 0.023) between healthy persons
and COVID-19 patients. Healthy participants’ consumption of onion (56.5 ± 7.82 g/day), garlic (4.32 ± 0.01 g/day) and oat
(6.32 ± 0.71 g/day) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more than COVID-19 patients. With the increase of each unit in the score
of the dietary inflammatory index, the risk of COVID-19 incidence increased 1.63 times (OR = 1.63 95%CI: 1.54–1.72).
There was an inverse association between the consumption of antioxidants and functional foods with the risk of COVID-19
incidence in the study population (p ≤ 0.05).
Received 10 July 2021
Accepted 20 January 2022
Pre-press 29 January 2022
∗ Corresponding author: Ali Nemati, Digestive Disease Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran. E-mail:
email@example.com. and Farhad Pourfarzi, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical
Sciences, Ardabil, Iran. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
ISSN 1973-798X/$35.00 © 2022 – IOS Press. All rights reserved.
M. Mohajeri et al. / The dietary inﬂammatory index, functional food, and antioxidants intake in COVID -19 patients
CONCLUSION: Healthy people consumption of antioxidants and functional foods was more than COVID-19 patients and
there was a significant inverse association between the risk of COVID- 19 incidence with the consumption of functional
foods and antioxidants. Increasing the dietary inflammatory index score increased the risk of COVID- 19 incidence. There
is a need for further clinical trials to confirm the effect of consuming functional foods and antioxidants on the prevention or
treatment of COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19, antioxidants, functional foods, dietary inflammatory index
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