Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Antihistamines
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All ursodeoxycholic acid..
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchUrsodeoxycholic acidUDCA (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Antihistamines Meta
Azvudine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Quercetin Meta
Favipiravir Meta Remdesivir Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

A Retrospective Study in Patients With Varying Prescription Coverage With Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Association With Incidence of COVID-19 Diagnosis in Primary Care

Ming et al., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases The American Medical Journal, doi:10.33590/microbiolinfectdisamj/10304488
Nov 2023  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Case 13% Improvement Relative Risk UDCA for COVID-19  Ming et al.  Prophylaxis Does ursodeoxycholic acid reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 8,864 patients in the United Kingdom Fewer cases with ursodeoxycholic acid (p=0.028) c19early.org Ming et al., Microbiology and Infectio.., Nov 2023 Favorsursodeoxycholic acid Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Retrospective 8,964 primary care patients prescribed ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the UK. Higher categorized UDCA adherence (≥80%) was associated with lower COVID-19 incidence (OR 0.86), whereas adherence as a continuous variable was not significant. However, adherence was measured indirectly via prescription records which may not reflect actual usage. Additionally, more adherent patients may differ systematically on unmeasured confounders (e.g., health behaviors) that influence COVID-19 risk.
3 preclinical studies support the efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid for COVID-19:
risk of case, 12.9% lower, RR 0.87, p = 0.03, treatment 185 of 3,804 (4.9%), control 297 of 5,060 (5.9%), NNT 99, odds ratio converted to relative risk, high vs. low adherence.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ming et al., 16 Nov 2023, retrospective, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, 3 authors, high vs. low. Contact: swanyauming@corevitas.com.
This PaperUDCAAll
A Retrospective Study in Patients With Varying Prescription Coverage With Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Association With Incidence of COVID-19 Diagnosis in Primary Care
Simon Wan Yau Ming Ming, Mike Smith, Yi Zhou
Microbiology and Infectious Diseases The American Medical Journal, doi:10.33590/microbiolinfectdisamj/10304488
Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in significant mortality and morbidity. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is reportedly widely in demand in some countries, such as China, to protect individuals from the effects of infection, as there is evidence that it is effective in preventing viral replication in some in vitro studies. UDCA is commonly prescribed in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and gallbladder calculi. By evaluating a set of patients prescribed UDCA, whether or not the risk of COVID-19 infection is attenuated by adherence to UDCA can be determined. Method: This is a retrospective database study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD Aurum). Patients who received a prescription of UDCA in the study timeframe of March 1, 2020-May 30, 2021 were characterized, and their primary care electronic medical records analyzed for presence of COVID-19 infection. The proportion of days covered for each patient was used as a proxy for adherence. A comparison was made between categorized high-and low-adherence, and adherence as a continuous variable. Inverse probability weighting was used to adjust for confounding. Results: Higher categorized adherence (≥80%) to UDCA was associated with a statistically significant lower incidence of COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.864; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.759-0.984; p=0.027). This contrasted to adherence as a continuous variable, which was not statistically significant. Obesity and hematological malignancy were also associated with a higher incidence of COVID-19 infection.
References
Abdulrab, Ursodeoxycholic acid as a candidate therapeutic to alleviate and/or prevent COV-ID-19-associated cytokine storm, Med Hypotheses
Brandstetter, Differences in medication adherence are associated with beliefs about medicines in asthma and COPD, Clin Transl Allergy
Brevini, FXR inhibition may protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection by reducing ACE2, Nature
Cameron, Pharmacists' experiences of consumer stockpiling: insights from COVID-19, J Pharm Pract Res
Coats, Gallstones in sickle cell disease: a single institution experience, Blood
Collier, COVID-19: all remaining coronavirus restrictions lifted in England
Collier, Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 to mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies, Nature
Fancourt, Covid-19 social study: results release 44
Gast, Mathes, Medication adherence influencing factors-an (updated) overview of systematic reviews, Syst Rev
Georges, Drug adherence and psychological factors in patients with apparently treatment-resistant hypertension: yes but which ones?, J Clin Hypertens
Gordon, Treatment choice, medication adherence and glycemic efficacy in people with type 2 diabetes: a UK clinical practice database study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care
Herrett, Data resource profile: clinical practice research datalink (CPRD), Int J Epidemiol
Huang, Kuan, Vaccination to reduce severe COVID-19 and mortality in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
Kashour, Efficacy of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine in COV-ID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis, J Antimicrob Chemother
Keam, Tixagevimab + cilgavimab: first approval, Drugs
Lee, Efficacy and safety of DWJ1319 in the prevention of gallstone formation after gastrectomy in patient with gastric cancer: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (PEGASUS-D) group. Efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid for the prevention of gallstone formation after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer: the PEGASUS-D randomized clinical trial, JAMA Surg
Li, Protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on COVID-19 in patients with chronic liver • disease, Front Cell Infect Microbiol
Machado, Ursodeoxycholic acid in the prevention of gallstones in patients subjected to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass1, Acta Cir Bras
Mallapaty, China is relaxing its zero COVID policy -here's what scientists think
Mcmahon, Favipiravir in early symptomatic COVID-19, a randomised placebo-controlled trial, EClinicalMedicine
Parízek, Efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, Ann Hepatol
Penner, What affected UK adults' adherence to medicines during the COVID-19 pandemic? Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of people with long-term conditions, Z Gesundh Wiss, doi:10.1007/s10389-022-01813-0
Prieto-Merino, Estimating proportion of days covered (PDC) using real-world online medicine suppliers' datasets, J Pharm Policy Pract
Rotshild, Comparing the clinical efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines: a systematic review and network meta-analysis, Sci Rep
Rudic, Ursodeoxycholic acid for primary biliary cirrhosis, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Smit, Prophylaxis for COV-ID-19: a systematic review, Clin Microbiol Infect
Taitel, The impact of pharmacist face-to-face counselling to improve medication adherence among patients initiating statin therapy, Patient Prefer Adherence
Williams, Cancer recording in patients with and without type 2 diabetes in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care data and linked hospital admission data: a cohort study, BMJ Open
Woodward, Social deprivation as a risk factor for COVID-19 mortality among women and men in the UK Biobank: nature of risk and context suggests that social interventions are essential to mitigate the effects of future pandemics, J Epidemiol Community Health
Yaguchi, Impact of medication adherence and glycemic control on the risk of microand macrovascular diseases in patients with diabetes, Am J Med
Yang, COVID-19 anxiety, uncertainty fuel China UDCA frenzy
Zhou, Sensitivity to vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and viral entry inhibitors and advances to counter the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant, Clin Microbiol Rev
{ 'indexed': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 17]], 'date-time': '2023-11-17T00:29:43Z', 'timestamp': 1700180983014}, 'reference-count': 36, 'publisher': 'European Medical Group', 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'abstract': '<jats:p>Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in significant ' 'mortality and morbidity. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is reportedly widely in demand in some ' 'countries, such as China, to protect individuals from the effects of infection, as there is ' 'evidence that it is effective in preventing viral replication in some in vitro studies. UDCA ' 'is commonly prescribed in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and gallbladder calculi. By ' 'evaluating a set of patients prescribed UDCA, whether or not the risk of COVID-19 infection ' 'is attenuated by adherence to UDCA can be determined.\n' '\n' 'Method: This is a retrospective database study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink ' '(CPRD Aurum). Patients who received a prescription of UDCA in the study timeframe of March 1, ' '2020–May 30, 2021 were characterized, and their primary care electronic medical records ' 'analyzed for presence of COVID-19 infection. The proportion of days covered for each patient ' 'was used as a proxy for adherence. A comparison was made between categorized high- and ' 'low-adherence, and adherence as a continuous variable. Inverse probability weighting was used ' 'to adjust for confounding.\n' '\n' 'Results: Higher categorized adherence (≥80%) to UDCA was associated with a statistically ' 'significant lower incidence of COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.864; 95% confidence interval ' '[CI]: 0.759–0.984; p=0.027). This contrasted to adherence as a continuous variable, which was ' 'not statistically significant. Obesity and hematological malignancy were also associated with ' 'a higher incidence of COVID-19 infection.\n' '\n' 'Conclusion: There is evidence to suggest that the regular use of UDCA is associated with a ' 'lower risk of COVID-19 infection when compared to irregular or sporadic usage.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.33590/microbiolinfectdisamj/10304488', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 16]], 'date-time': '2023-11-16T16:38:39Z', 'timestamp': 1700152719000}, 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'A Retrospective Study in Patients With Varying Prescription Coverage With Ursodeoxycholic Acid ' 'and Association With Incidence of COVID-19 Diagnosis in Primary Care', 'prefix': '10.33590', 'author': [ { 'given': 'Simon Wan Yau Ming', 'family': 'Ming', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'CorEvitas, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Mike', 'family': 'Smith', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'CorEvitas, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Yi', 'family': 'Zhou', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Ionscope, Cambridge, UK'}]}], 'member': '18914', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 16]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': 'ref0', 'unstructured': 'Huang Y-Z, Kuan CC. Vaccination to reduce severe COVID-19 and mortality ' 'in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Rev Med ' 'Pharmacol Sci. 2022;26(5):1770-6.'}, { 'key': 'ref1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Smit M et al Prophylaxis for COVID-19: a systematic review. Clin ' 'Microbiol Infect. 2021;27(4):532-7.', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cmi.2021.01.013'}, { 'key': 'ref2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Keam SJ. Tixagevimab + cilgavimab: first approval. Drugs. ' '2022;82(9):1001-10.', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40265-022-01731-1'}, { 'key': 'ref3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Kashour Z et al. Efficacy of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine in ' 'COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Antimicrob ' 'Chemother. 2021;76(1):30-42.', 'DOI': '10.1093/jac/dkaa403'}, { 'key': 'ref4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'McMahon JH et al. Favipiravir in early symptomatic COVID-19, a ' 'randomised placebo-controlled trial. EClinicalMedicine. 2022;54:101703.', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101703'}, { 'key': 'ref5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Abdulrab S et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid as a candidate therapeutic to ' 'alleviate and/or prevent COVID-19-associated cytokine storm. Med ' 'Hypotheses. 2020;143:109897.', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109897'}, { 'key': 'ref6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Machado FHF et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid in the prevention of gallstones ' 'in patients subjected to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass1. Acta Cir Bras. ' '2019;34(1):e20190010000009.', 'DOI': '10.1590/s0102-865020190010000009'}, { 'key': 'ref7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Rudic JS et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid for primary biliary cirrhosis. ' 'Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12(12):CD000551.', 'DOI': '10.1002/14651858.CD000551.pub3'}, { 'key': 'ref8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Lee SH et al.; Efficacy and safety of DWJ1319 in the prevention of ' 'gallstone formation after gastrectomy in patient with gastric cancer: a ' 'multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study ' '(PEGASUS-D) group. Efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid for the ' 'prevention of gallstone formation after gastrectomy in patients with ' 'gastric cancer: the PEGASUS-D randomized clinical trial. JAMA Surg. ' '2020;155(8):703-11.', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamasurg.2020.1501'}, { 'key': 'ref9', 'unstructured': 'Parízek A et al. Efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients ' 'with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Ann Hepatol. ' '201615(5):757-61.'}, { 'key': 'ref10', 'unstructured': 'National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). ' 'Ursodeoxycholic acid. Available at: ' 'https://bnf.nice.org.uk/drugs/ursodeoxycholic-acid/. Last accessed: 10 ' 'May 2023.'}, { 'key': 'ref11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Zhou H et al. Sensitivity to vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and viral ' 'entry inhibitors and advances to counter the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant. ' 'Clin Microbiol Rev. 2022;35(3):e0001422.', 'DOI': '10.1128/cmr.00014-22'}, { 'key': 'ref12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Brevini T et al. FXR inhibition may protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection by ' 'reducing ACE2. Nature. 2023;615(7950):134-42.', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41586-022-05594-0'}, { 'key': 'ref13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Collier DA et al.; CITIID-NIHR BioResource COVID-19 Collaboration; ' 'COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) Consortium. Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 ' 'B.1.1.7 to mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies. Nature. ' '2021;593(7857):136-41.', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.12.05.20241927'}, { 'key': 'ref14', 'unstructured': 'Fancourt D et al. Covid-19 social study: results release 44. 2022. ' 'Available at: ' 'https://www.covidsocialstudy.org/_files/ugd/064c8b_c525505ffa6b432f96dc41d6b6a985ea.pdf. ' 'Last accessed: 7 April 2023.'}, { 'key': 'ref15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Collier I. COVID-19: all remaining coronavirus restrictions lifted in ' 'England. 2022. Available at: ' 'https://news.sky.com/story/covid-19-all-remaining-coronavirus-restrictions-lifted-in-england-12549571. ' 'Last accessed: 20 March 2023.', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.o355'}, { 'key': 'ref16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Mallapaty S. China is relaxing its zero COVID policy – here’s what ' 'scientists think 2022. Available at: ' 'https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-04382-0. Last accessed: 20 ' 'March 2023.', 'DOI': '10.1038/d41586-022-04382-0'}, { 'key': 'ref17', 'unstructured': 'Yang B. COVID-19 anxiety, uncertainty fuel China UDCA frenzy. 2022. ' 'Available at: ' 'https://scrip.pharmaintelligence.informa.com/SC147513/COVID19-Anxiety-Uncertainty-Fuel-China-UDCA-Frenzy. ' 'Last accessed: 25 March 2023.'}, { 'key': 'ref18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Li Y et al. Protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on COVID-19 in ' 'patients with chronic liver disease. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. ' '2023;13:1178590.', 'DOI': '10.3389/fcimb.2023.1178590'}, { 'key': 'ref19', 'unstructured': 'Institute for Government (IfG) analysis. Timeline of UK government ' 'coronavirus lockdowns and measures, March 2020 to December 2021. ' 'Available at: ' 'https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/sites/default/files/2022-12/timeline-coronavirus-lockdown-december-2021.pdf. ' 'Last accessed: 30 March 2023.'}, { 'key': 'ref20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Prieto-Merino D et al. Estimating proportion of days covered (PDC) using ' "real-world online medicine suppliers' datasets. J Pharm Policy Pract. " '2021;14(1):113.', 'DOI': '10.1186/s40545-021-00385-w'}, { 'key': 'ref21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'National Health Service (NHS). Guidance for people whose immune system ' 'means they are at higher risk. Available at: ' 'https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/covid-19-guidance-for-people-whose-immune-system-means-they-are-at-higher-risk/covid-19-guidance-for-people-whose-immune-system-means-they-are-at-higher-risk. ' 'Last accessed: 17 October 2023.', 'DOI': '10.52487/124810'}, { 'key': 'ref22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Williams R et al. Cancer recording in patients with and without type 2 ' 'diabetes in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care data ' 'and linked hospital admission data: a cohort study. BMJ Open. ' '2018;8(5):e020827.', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020827'}, { 'key': 'ref23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Herrett E et al. Data resource profile: clinical practice research ' 'datalink (CPRD). Int J Epidemiol. 2015;44(3):827-36.', 'DOI': '10.1093/ije/dyv098'}, { 'key': 'ref24', 'unstructured': 'Medicines & Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency; Convention on the ' 'Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CPRD); National Institute for ' 'Health Research (NIHR). Feasibility counts for SARS-CoV-2-related codes ' 'in CPRD primary care data. 2022. Available at: ' 'https://cprd.com/sites/default/files/2022-05/SARS-CoV-2%20counts%20May2022.pdf. ' 'Last accessed: 10 March 2023.'}, { 'key': 'ref25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Yaguchi Y et al. Impact of medication adherence and glycemic control on ' 'the risk of micro- and macrovascular diseases in patients with diabetes. ' 'Am J Med. 202;135(4):461-70.e1.', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.amjmed.2021.10.018'}, { 'key': 'ref26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Coats T et al. Gallstones in sickle cell disease: a single institution ' 'experience. Blood. 2014;124 (21):4939.', 'DOI': '10.1182/blood.v124.21.4939.4939'}, { 'key': 'ref27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Georges CMG et al. Drug adherence and psychological factors in patients ' 'with apparently treatment-resistant hypertension: yes but which ones? J ' 'Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2022;24(11):1436-43.', 'DOI': '10.1111/jch.14575'}, { 'key': 'ref28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Woodward M et al. Social deprivation as a risk factor for COVID-19 ' 'mortality among women and men in the UK Biobank: nature of risk and ' 'context suggests that social interventions are essential to mitigate the ' 'effects of future pandemics. J Epidemiol Community Health. ' '2021;75(11):1050-5.', 'DOI': '10.1136/jech-2020-215810'}, { 'key': 'ref29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Gast A, Mathes T. Medication adherence influencing factors-an (updated) ' 'overview of systematic reviews. Syst Rev. 2019;8(1):112.', 'DOI': '10.1186/s13643-019-1014-8'}, { 'key': 'ref30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': "Penner LS et al. What affected UK adults' adherence to medicines during " 'the COVID-19 pandemic? Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample ' 'of people with long-term conditions. Z Gesundh Wiss. ' '2023;DOI:10.1007/s10389-022-01813-0.', 'DOI': '10.1007/s10389-022-01813-0'}, { 'key': 'ref31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Brandstetter S et al. Differences in medication adherence are associated ' 'with beliefs about medicines in asthma and COPD. Clin Transl Allergy. ' '2017;7:39.', 'DOI': '10.1186/s13601-017-0175-6'}, { 'key': 'ref32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Taitel M et al. The impact of pharmacist face-to-face counselling to ' 'improve medication adherence among patients initiating statin therapy. ' 'Patient Prefer Adherence. 2012;6:323-9.', 'DOI': '10.2147/ppa.s29353'}, { 'key': 'ref33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': "Cameron EE et al. Pharmacists' experiences of consumer stockpiling: " 'insights from COVID-19. J Pharm Pract Res. 2021;51(6):464-71.', 'DOI': '10.1002/jppr.1758'}, { 'key': 'ref34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Gordon J et al. Treatment choice, medication adherence and glycemic ' 'efficacy in people with type 2 diabetes: a UK clinical practice database ' 'study. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2018;6(1):e000512.', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjdrc-2018-000512'}, { 'key': 'ref35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Rotshild V et al. Comparing the clinical efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines: ' 'a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Sci Rep. ' '2021;11(1):22777.', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-021-02321-z'}], 'container-title': 'Microbiology and Infectious Diseases The American Medical Journal', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.emjreviews.com/microbiology-infectious-diseases/article/a-retrospective-study-in-patients-with-varying-prescription-coverage-with-ursodeoxycholic-acid-and-association-with-incidence-of-covid-19-diagnosis-in-primary-care/', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 16]], 'date-time': '2023-11-16T16:38:53Z', 'timestamp': 1700152733000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': { 'primary': { 'URL': 'https://www.emjreviews.com/microbiology-infectious-diseases/article/a-retrospective-study-in-patients-with-varying-prescription-coverage-with-ursodeoxycholic-acid-and-association-with-incidence-of-covid-19-diagnosis-in-primary-care/'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 16]]}, 'references-count': 36, 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.33590/microbiolinfectdisamj/10304488', 'relation': {}, 'subject': [ 'General Medicine', 'General Earth and Planetary Sciences', 'General Environmental Science', 'General Medicine', 'Ocean Engineering', 'General Medicine', 'General Medicine', 'General Medicine', 'General Medicine', 'General Earth and Planetary Sciences', 'General Environmental Science', 'General Medicine'], 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 16]]}}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit