Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All exercise studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchExerciseExercise (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Symp. case 42% Improvement Relative Risk Exercise for COVID-19  Marcus et al.  Prophylaxis Does physical activity reduce risk for COVID-19? Prospective study of 14,335 patients in multiple countries (Mar - May 2020) Fewer symptomatic cases with higher activity levels (p<0.000001) Marcus et al., PLOS ONE, June 2021 Favors exercise Favors inactivity

Predictors of incident viral symptoms ascertained in the era of COVID-19

Marcus et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0253120
Jun 2021  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Exercise for COVID-19
9th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 66 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Prospective survey based study with 14,335 participants, showing lower risk of viral symptoms with regular exercise.
Study covers sleep and exercise.
risk of symptomatic case, 42.1% lower, RR 0.58, p < 0.001, high activity levels 240 of 10,627 (2.3%), low activity levels 134 of 3,708 (3.6%), NNT 74, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Marcus et al., 17 Jun 2021, prospective, multiple countries, peer-reviewed, survey, 12 authors, study period 26 March, 2020 - 3 May, 2020.
This PaperExerciseAll
Predictors of incident viral symptoms ascertained in the era of COVID-19
Gregory M Marcus, Jeffrey E Olgin, Noah D Peyser, Eric Vittinghoff, Vivian Yang, Sean Joyce, Robert Avram, Geoffrey H Tison, David Wen, Xochitl Butcher, Helena Eitel, Mark J Pletcher
PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0253120
Background In the absence of universal testing, effective therapies, or vaccines, identifying risk factors for viral infection, particularly readily modifiable exposures and behaviors, is required to identify effective strategies against viral infection and transmission. Methods We conducted a world-wide mobile application-based prospective cohort study available to English speaking adults with a smartphone. We collected self-reported characteristics, exposures, and behaviors, as well as smartphone-based geolocation data. Our main outcome was incident symptoms of viral infection, defined as fevers and chills plus one other symptom previously shown to occur with SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined by daily surveys. Findings Among 14, 335 participants residing in all 50 US states and 93 different countries followed for a median 21 days (IQR 10-26 days), 424 (3%) developed incident viral symptoms. In pooled multivariable logistic regression models, female biological sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.39-2.20, p<0.001), anemia (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.16-1.81, p = 0.001), hypertension (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.68, p = 0.007), cigarette smoking in the last 30 days (OR 1.86, p<0.001), any viral symptoms among household members 6-12 days prior (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.67-2.55, p<0.001), and the maximum number of individuals the participant interacted with within 6 feet in the past 6-12 days (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.25, p<0.001) were each associated with a higher risk of developing viral symptoms. Conversely, a higher subjective social status (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.93, p<0.001), at least weekly exercise (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.47-0.70, p<0.001), and sanitizing one's phone (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.99, p = 0.037) were each associated with a lower risk of developing viral symptoms.
Supporting information S1 Table. Proportion of participants completing at least one daily survey per week and the proportion completing weekly surveys. (DOCX) S2
Adorni, Prinelli, Bianchi, Self-reported symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a non-hospitalized population: results from the large Italian web-based EPICOVID19 cross-sectional survey, JMIR Public Health Surveill
Alene, Yismaw, Assemie, Ketema, Gietaneh et al., Serial interval and incubation period of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, BMC Infect Dis, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-05950-x
Bastiani, Fortunato, Pieroni, Rapid COVID-19 Screening Based on Self-Reported Symptoms: Psychometric Assessment and Validation of the EPICOVID19 Short Diagnostic Scale, J Med Internet Res, doi:10.2196/23897
Benjamin, Blaha, Chiuve, Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association, Circulation, doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000485
Bhatraju, Ghassemieh, Nichols, COVID-19 in Critically Ill Patients in the Seattle Region -Case Series, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2004500
Burton, Fort, Seoane, Hospitalization and Mortality among Black Patients and White Patients with COVID-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMsa2011686
Cai, Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with COVID-19, The Lancet Respiratory medicine, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600%2820%2930117-X
Castro Gertrudes, Zimek, Sander, Campello, A unified view of density-based methods for semisupervised clustering and classification, Data Min Knowl Discov, doi:10.1007/s10618-019-00651-1
Cooper, Milic, Mills, Bardwell, Ziegler et al., Endothelial function: the impact of objective and subjective socioeconomic status on flow-mediated dilation, Ann Behav Med, doi:10.1007/s12160-010-9181-9
Dawson, Rabold, Laws, Loss of Taste and Smell as Distinguishing Symptoms of COVID-19, Clin Infect Dis
Farsalinos, Barbouni, Poulas, Polosa, Caponnetto et al., Current smoking, former smoking, and adverse outcome among hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Ther Adv Chronic Dis, doi:10.1177/2040622320935765
Gangaputra, Patel, Ocular Symptoms among Nonhospitalized Patients Who Underwent COVID-19 Testing, Ophthalmology, doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.06.037
Gold, Sehayek, Gabrielli, Zhang, Mccusker et al., COVID-19 and comorbidities: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Postgrad Med, doi:10.1080/00325481.2020.1786964
Goodman, Adler, Kawachi, Frazier, Huang et al., Adolescents' perceptions of social status: development and evaluation of a new indicator, Pediatrics, doi:10.1542/peds.108.2.e31
Goyal, Choi, Pinheiro, Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 in New York City, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMc2010419
Grant, Geoghegan, Arbyn, The prevalence of symptoms in 24,410 adults infected by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis of 148 studies from 9 countries, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0234765
Haddad, Malhab, Sacre, Salameh, Smoking and COVID-19: A Scoping Review, Tob Use Insights, doi:10.1177/1179173X21994612
Huang, Wang, Li, Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736%2820%2930183-5
Islam, Sharp, Chowell, Physical distancing interventions and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019: natural experiment in 149 countries, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m2743
Juster, Sindi, Marin, A clinical allostatic load index is associated with burnout symptoms and hypocortisolemic profiles in healthy workers, Psychoneuroendocrinology, doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.11.001
Kutter, Spronken, Fraaij, Fouchier, Herfst, Transmission routes of respiratory viruses among humans, Curr Opin Virol, doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2018.01.001
Lan, Filler, Mathew, COVID-19 symptoms predictive of healthcare workers' SARS-CoV-2 PCR results, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235460
Lan, Filler, Mathew, Evolving virulence? Decreasing COVID-19 complications among Massachusetts healthcare workers: a cohort study, Pathog Glob Health, doi:10.1080/20477724.2020.1847778
Lessler, Brookmeyer, Reich, Nelson, Cummings et al., Identifying the probable timing and setting of respiratory virus infections, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, doi:10.1086/655023
Liu, Blet, Smyth, Li, The Science Underlying COVID-19: Implications for the Cardiovascular System, Circulation, doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047549
Liu, Cui, Yang, Yao, Correlation between gastrointestinal symptoms and disease severity in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, BMJ Open Gastroenterol, doi:10.1136/bmjgast-2020-000437
Martı ´n-Sa ´nchez, Toro, Cardassay, Clinical presentation and outcome across age categories among patients with COVID-19 admitted to a Spanish Emergency Department, Eur Geriatr Med, doi:10.1007/s41999-020-00359-2
Mcanulty, Ward, Suppressing the Epidemic in New South Wales, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMc2011592
Melvin, Godwin, Berenhaut, Salsbury, Visualizing correlated motion with HDBSCAN clustering, Protein Sci, doi:10.1002/pro.3268
Menachemi, Yiannoutsos, Dixon, Population Point Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Based on a Statewide Random Sample-Indiana, April 25, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6929e1
Menni, Valdes, Freidin, Real-time tracking of self-reported symptoms to predict potential COVID-19, Nat Med, doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0916-2
Pagani, Conti, Giacomelli, Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 significantly varies with age: Preliminary results from a mass population screening, J Infect, doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.09.021
Peckham, De Gruijter, Raine, Male sex identified by global COVID-19 meta-analysis as a risk factor for death and ITU admission, Nat Commun, doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19741-6
Pollan, Perez-Gomez, Pastor-Barriuso, Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain (ENE-COVID): a nationwide, population-based seroepidemiological study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736%2820%2931483-5
Richardson, Hirsch, Narasimhan, Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area, JAMA
Rouse, Sehrawat, Immunity and immunopathology to viruses: what decides the outcome?, Nat Rev Immunol, doi:10.1038/nri2802
Scalinci, Battagliola, Conjunctivitis can be the only presenting sign and symptom of COVID-19, IDCases, doi:10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00774
Silverman, Hupert, Washburne, Using influenza surveillance networks to estimate state-specific prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the United States, Sci Transl Med, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.abc1126
Simpson, Kunz, Agha, Graff, Exercise and the Regulation of Immune Functions, Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci, doi:10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.08.001
Tostmann, Bradley, Bousema, Strong associations and moderate predictive value of early symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 test positivity among healthcare workers, the Netherlands, Euro Surveill, doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.16.2000508
Tromberg, Schwetz, ´rez-Stable, Rapid Scaling Up of COVID-19 Diagnostic Testing in the United States-The NIH RADx Initiative, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMsr2022263
Wang, Li, Liu, An overview of the safety, clinical application and antiviral research of the COVID-19 therapeutics, J Infect Public Health
Wang, Pan, Tang, Ji, Shi, Mask use during COVID-19: A risk adjusted strategy, Environ Pollut, doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115099
Williamson, Walker, Bhaskaran, Factors associated with COVID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY, Nature, doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4
Williamson, Walker, Bhaskaran, OpenSAFELY: factors associated with COVID-19 death in 17 million patients, Nature
Wynants, Van Calster, Collins, Prediction models for diagnosis and prognosis of covid-19 infection: systematic review and critical appraisal, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1328
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop