OBJECTIVE: Hypovitaminosis D may be associated with an increased susceptibility to infection, more severe COVID-19 forms, and a higher risk of death. The objective of this study was to investigate any possible connections between vitamin D status [as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels] and COVID-19 severity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 2021, a cross-sectional study of consecutive adult COVID-19 patients was conducted. Anthropometric data, comorbidities, hospital setting, length of stay, respiratory support, outcome data, and vitamin D status were all evaluated. RESULTS: The length of hospitalization among participants (n = 74; mean age 57.64 ± 17.83 years, 55.4% male) was 18.58 ± 10 days, the majority of the hospital setting was a medical ward (67.6%), and the respiratory support in the form of mechanical ventilation was represented by 12.2%. Hypertension (54.1%), obesity (64.9%), and overweight (64.9%) were the most common cardiometabolic risk factors. In the study group, 44.6% of participants had severe vitamin D deficiency (< 30 nmol/l), while 8.1% had vitamin D insufficiency (50 -74.9 nmol/l). Furthermore, patients with severe COVID-19 (semi-intensive care unit, intensive care unit) had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D levels (32.9 vs. 20.5 nmol/l; p = 0.007). Participants with severe vitamin D deficiency were older and had more prevalent hypertension, requiring mechanical ventilation; 24.2% experienced a fatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Severe vitamin D deficiency may contribute significantly to the influence of other cardiometabolic risk factors in COVID-19.
Conflict of Interest The Authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
Ethics Approval The study was conducted following the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the Ethics Committees of the Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Serbia (approval number: 00-153) and the Faculty of Medicine Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia (approval number: 01-39/94/1).
Informed Consent All subjects provided informed consent.
Authors' Contributions Mia Manojlovic contributed significantly to study conception and design, data acquisition, data interpretation, and manuscript writing; Branislava Ilincic contributed significantly to study conception and design and manuscript writ-
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