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Network analysis-guided drug repurposing strategies targeting LPAR receptor in the interplay of COVID, Alzheimer’s, and diabetes

Malar et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-024-55013-9
Feb 2024  
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In silico study showing potential COVID-19 treatment benefits by repurposing drugs targeting lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs), which are implicated in the tri-directional relationship between Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and COVID-19. Authors found 177 genes common across the three diseases and used network analysis to highlight interactions between LPARs 1, 3, 6 and proteins including F2, ACE, REN and SERPIND1. Molecular docking suggests the viral spike protein binds efficiently with LPARs, enabling viral hijacking of host cells. Screening of 78 drugs already in clinical trials for Alzheimer's and diabetes revealed candidates including lupron, neflamapimod and nilotinib exhibit potential to disrupt LPAR-spike protein complexes and LPAR-mediated cytokine storm driving COVID-19 severity. The study hypothesizes co-administration of these drugs during infection may mitigate acute COVID-19 symptoms and prevent downstream complications like accelerated cognitive decline or diabetes onset.
Malar et al., 21 Feb 2024, Thailand, peer-reviewed, 5 authors. Contact: kanika.honey.verma@gmail.com, jamesmichael.b@chula.ac.th.
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperMiscellaneousAll
Network analysis-guided drug repurposing strategies targeting LPAR receptor in the interplay of COVID, Alzheimer’s, and diabetes
Dicson Sheeja Malar, Kanika Verma, Mani Iyer Prasanth, Tewin Tencomnao, James Michael Brimson
Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-024-55013-9
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has greatly affected global health. Emerging evidence suggests a complex interplay between Alzheimer's disease (AD), diabetes (DM), and COVID-19. Given COVID-19's involvement in the increased risk of other diseases, there is an urgent need to identify novel targets and drugs to combat these interconnected health challenges. Lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs), belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor family, have been implicated in various pathological conditions, including inflammation. In this regard, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of LPARs (specifically LPAR1, 3, 6) in the tri-directional relationship between AD, DM, and COVID-19 through network analysis, as well as explore the therapeutic potential of selected anti-AD, anti-DM drugs as LPAR, SPIKE antagonists. We used the Coremine Medical database to identify genes related to DM, AD, and COVID-19. Furthermore, STRING analysis was used to identify the interacting partners of LPAR1, LPAR3, and LPAR6. Additionally, a literature search revealed 78 drugs on the market or in clinical studies that were used for treating either AD or DM. We carried out docking analysis of these drugs against the LPAR1, LPAR3, and LPAR6. Furthermore, we modeled the LPAR1, LPAR3, and LPAR6 in a complex with the COVID-19 spike protein and performed a docking study of selected drugs with the LPAR-Spike complex. The analysis revealed 177 common genes implicated in AD, DM, and COVID-19. Protein-protein docking analysis demonstrated that LPAR (1,3 & 6) efficiently binds with the viral SPIKE protein, suggesting them as targets for viral infection. Furthermore, docking analysis of the anti-AD and anti-DM drugs against LPARs, SPIKE protein, and the LPARs-SPIKE complex revealed promising candidates, including lupron, neflamapimod, and nilotinib, stating the importance of drug repurposing in the drug discovery process. These drugs exhibited the ability to bind and inhibit the LPAR receptor activity and the SPIKE protein and interfere with LPAR-SPIKE protein interaction. Through a combined network and targeted-based therapeutic intervention approach, this study has identified several drugs that could be repurposed for treating COVID-19 due to their expected interference with LPAR(1, 3, and 6) and spike protein complexes. In addition, it can also be hypothesized that the co-administration of these identified drugs during COVID-19 infection may not only help mitigate the impact of the virus but also potentially contribute to the prevention or management of post-COVID complications related to AD and DM.
Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests.
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A., Bej, T. A., Wilson, B., Jump, R. L. P. & Phillips, J. ' 'A. Donepezil-associated survival benefits among Alzheimer’s disease ' 'patients are retained but not enhanced during COVID-19 infections. Ther. ' 'Adv. Infect. Dis. 10, 20499361231174290 (2023).', 'volume': '10', 'year': '2023'}, { 'author': 'AFA Mansoor', 'first-page': '12', 'journal-title': 'J. Emerg. Med. Trauma Acute Care', 'key': '55013_CR80', 'unstructured': 'Mansoor, A. F. A. & Raghif, A. R. A. Attenuated effects of rivastigmine ' 'in induced cytokine storm in mice. J. Emerg. Med. Trauma Acute Care ' '2022, 12 (2022).', 'volume': '2022', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.metabol.2022.155196', 'author': 'NN Nguyen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '155196', 'journal-title': 'Metabolism', 'key': '55013_CR81', 'unstructured': 'Nguyen, N. N. et al. Preadmission use of antidiabetic medications and ' 'mortality among patients with COVID-19 having type 2 diabetes: A ' 'meta-analysis. 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