Withanolide A for COVID-19
Withanolide A has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Phytochemicals of Withania somnifera as a Future Promising Drug against SARS-CoV-2: Pharmacological Role, Molecular Mechanism, Molecular Docking Evaluation, and Efficient Delivery, Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms11041000 ,
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has killed millions of people since first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Intriguingly, Withania somnifera (WS) has shown promising antiviral effects against numerous viral infections, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which are contributed by its phytochemicals. This review focused on the updated testing of therapeutic efficacy and associated molecular mechanisms of WS extracts and their phytochemicals against SARS-CoV-2 infection in preclinical and clinical studies with the aim to develop a long-term solution against COVID-19. It also deciphered the current use of the in silico molecular docking approach in developing potential inhibitors from WS targeting SARS-CoV-2 and host cell receptors that may aid the development of targeted therapy against SARS-CoV-2 ranging from prior to viral entry until acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This review also discussed nanoformulations or nanocarriers in achieving effective WS delivery to enhance its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy, consequently preventing the emergence of drug resistance, and eventually therapeutic failure.
Plants as Biofactories for Therapeutic Proteins and Antiviral Compounds to Combat COVID-19, Life, doi:10.3390/life13030617 ,
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had a profound impact on the world’s health and economy. Although the end of the pandemic may come in 2023, it is generally believed that the virus will not be completely eradicated. Most likely, the disease will become an endemicity. The rapid development of vaccines of different types (mRNA, subunit protein, inactivated virus, etc.) and some other antiviral drugs (Remdesivir, Olumiant, Paxlovid, etc.) has provided effectiveness in reducing COVID-19’s impact worldwide. However, the circulating SARS-CoV-2 virus has been constantly mutating with the emergence of multiple variants, which makes control of COVID-19 difficult. There is still a pressing need for developing more effective antiviral drugs to fight against the disease. Plants have provided a promising production platform for both bioactive chemical compounds (small molecules) and recombinant therapeutics (big molecules). Plants naturally produce a diverse range of bioactive compounds as secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, terpenoids/terpenes and polyphenols, which are a rich source of countless antiviral compounds. Plants can also be genetically engineered to produce valuable recombinant therapeutics. This molecular farming in plants has an unprecedented opportunity for developing vaccines, antibodies, and other biologics for pandemic diseases because of its potential advantages, such as low cost, safety, and high production volume. This review summarizes the latest advancements in plant-derived drugs used to combat COVID-19 and discusses the prospects and challenges of the plant-based production platform for antiviral agents.
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