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Tranilast for COVID-19

Tranilast has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Vlasova-St. Louis et al., COVID-19-Omics Report: From Individual Omics Approaches to Precision Medicine, Reports, doi:10.3390/reports6040045
During the COVID-19 pandemic, it became apparent that precision medicine relies heavily on biological multi-omics discoveries. High throughput omics technologies, such as host genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, metabolomics/lipidomics, and microbiomics, have become an integral part of precision diagnostics. The large number of data generated by omics technologies allows for the identification of vulnerable demographic populations that are susceptible to poor disease outcomes. Additionally, these data help to pinpoint the omics-based biomarkers that are currently driving advancements in precision and preventive medicine, such as early diagnosis and disease prognosis, individualized treatments, and vaccination. This report summarizes COVID-19-omic studies, highlights the results of completed and ongoing omics investigations in individuals who have experienced severe disease outcomes, and examines the impact that repurposed/novel antiviral drugs, targeted immunotherapeutics, and vaccines have had on individual and public health.
Wang et al., Inflammasomes: a rising star on the horizon of COVID-19 pathophysiology, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1185233
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a contagious respiratory virus that is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic which has posed a serious threat to public health. COVID-19 is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to mild cold-like symptoms, severe pneumonia or even death. Inflammasomes are supramolecular signaling platforms that assemble in response to danger or microbial signals. Upon activation, inflammasomes mediate innate immune defense by favoring the release of proinflammatory cytokines and triggering pyroptotic cell death. Nevertheless, abnormalities in inflammasome functioning can result in a variety of human diseases such as autoimmune disorders and cancer. A growing body of evidence has showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection can induce inflammasome assembly. Dysregulated inflammasome activation and consequent cytokine burst have been associated with COVID-19 severity, alluding to the implication of inflammasomes in COVID-19 pathophysiology. Accordingly, an improved understanding of inflammasome-mediated inflammatory cascades in COVID-19 is essential to uncover the immunological mechanisms of COVID-19 pathology and identify effective therapeutic approaches for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings on the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and inflammasomes and the contribution of activated inflammasomes to COVID-19 progression. We dissect the mechanisms involving the inflammasome machinery in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis. In addition, we provide an overview of inflammasome-targeted therapies or antagonists that have potential clinical utility in COVID-19 treatment.
Lécuyer et al., The purinergic receptor P2X7 and the NLRP3 inflammasome are druggable host factors required for SARS-CoV-2 infection, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.04.05.531513
AbstractPurinergic receptors and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome regulate inflammation and viral infection, but their effects on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the purinergic receptor P2X7 and NLRP3 inflammasome are cellular host factors required for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lung autopsies from patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reveal that NLRP3 expression is increased in host cellular targets of SARS-CoV-2 including alveolar macrophages, type II pneumocytes and syncytia arising from the fusion of infected macrophages, thus suggesting a potential role of NLRP3 and associated signaling pathways to both inflammation and viral replication. In vitro studies demonstrate that NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation is detected upon macrophage abortive infection. More importantly, a weak activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is also detected during the early steps of SARS-CoV-2 infection of epithelial cells and promotes the viral replication in these cells. Interestingly, the purinergic receptor P2X7, which is known to control NLRP3 inflammasome activation, also favors the replication of D614G and alpha SARS-CoV-2 variants. Altogether, our results reveal an unexpected relationship between the purinergic receptor P2X7, the NLRP3 inflammasome and the permissiveness to SARS-CoV-2 infection that offers novel opportunities for COVID-19 treatment.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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