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Tetracycline for COVID-19

Tetracycline has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Kouznetsova et al., Potential SARS-CoV-2 protease Mpro inhibitors: repurposing FDA-approved drugs, Physical Biology, doi:10.1088/1478-3975/abcb66
Abstract Using as a template the crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, we developed a pharmacophore model of functional centers of the protease inhibitor-binding pocket. With this model, we conducted data mining of the conformational database of FDA-approved drugs. This search brought 64 compounds that can be potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 protease. The conformations of these compounds undergone 3D fingerprint similarity clusterization. Then we conducted docking of possible conformers of these drugs to the binding pocket of the protease. We also conducted the same docking of random compounds. Free energies of the docking interaction for the selected compounds were clearly lower than random compounds. Three of the selected compounds were carfilzomib, cyclosporine A, and azithromycin—the drugs that already are tested for COVID-19 treatment. Among the selected compounds are two HIV protease inhibitors and two hepatitis C protease inhibitors. We recommend testing of the selected compounds for treatment of COVID-19.
Huang et al., Signaling pathways and potential therapeutic targets in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), Respiratory Research, doi:10.1186/s12931-024-02678-5
AbstractAcute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common condition associated with critically ill patients, characterized by bilateral chest radiographical opacities with refractory hypoxemia due to noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Despite significant advances, the mortality of ARDS remains unacceptably high, and there are still no effective targeted pharmacotherapeutic agents. With the outbreak of coronavirus disease 19 worldwide, the mortality of ARDS has increased correspondingly. Comprehending the pathophysiology and the underlying molecular mechanisms of ARDS may thus be essential to developing effective therapeutic strategies and reducing mortality. To facilitate further understanding of its pathogenesis and exploring novel therapeutics, this review provides comprehensive information of ARDS from pathophysiology to molecular mechanisms and presents targeted therapeutics. We first describe the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ARDS that involve dysregulated inflammation, alveolar-capillary barrier dysfunction, impaired alveolar fluid clearance and oxidative stress. Next, we summarize the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways related to the above four aspects of ARDS pathophysiology, along with the latest research progress. Finally, we discuss the emerging therapeutic strategies that show exciting promise in ARDS, including several pharmacologic therapies, microRNA-based therapies and mesenchymal stromal cell therapies, highlighting the pathophysiological basis and the influences on signal transduction pathways for their use.
Sperry et al., Target-agnostic drug prediction integrated with medical record analysis uncovers differential associations of statins with increased survival in COVID-19 patients, PLOS Computational Biology, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1011050 (Table 2)
Drug repurposing requires distinguishing established drug class targets from novel molecule-specific mechanisms and rapidly derisking their therapeutic potential in a time-critical manner, particularly in a pandemic scenario. In response to the challenge to rapidly identify treatment options for COVID-19, several studies reported that statins, as a drug class, reduce mortality in these patients. However, it is unknown if different statins exhibit consistent function or may have varying therapeutic benefit. A Bayesian network tool was used to predict drugs that shift the host transcriptomic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection towards a healthy state. Drugs were predicted using 14 RNA-sequencing datasets from 72 autopsy tissues and 465 COVID-19 patient samples or from cultured human cells and organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2. Top drug predictions included statins, which were then assessed using electronic medical records containing over 4,000 COVID-19 patients on statins to determine mortality risk in patients prescribed specific statins versus untreated matched controls. The same drugs were tested in Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and human endothelial cells infected with a related OC43 coronavirus. Simvastatin was among the most highly predicted compounds (14/14 datasets) and five other statins, including atorvastatin, were predicted to be active in > 50% of analyses. Analysis of the clinical database revealed that reduced mortality risk was only observed in COVID-19 patients prescribed a subset of statins, including simvastatin and atorvastatin. In vitro testing of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells revealed simvastatin to be a potent direct inhibitor whereas most other statins were less effective. Simvastatin also inhibited OC43 infection and reduced cytokine production in endothelial cells. Statins may differ in their ability to sustain the lives of COVID-19 patients despite having a shared drug target and lipid-modifying mechanism of action. These findings highlight the value of target-agnostic drug prediction coupled with patient databases to identify and clinically evaluate non-obvious mechanisms and derisk and accelerate drug repurposing opportunities.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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