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Tenofovir disoproxil for COVID-19

Tenofovir disoproxil has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Del Amo, J., Daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine and hydroxychloroquine for pre-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19: a double-blind placebo controlled randomized trial in healthcare workers, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.03.02.22271710
Objective: To assess the effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC), and their combination as pre-exposure prophylaxis on the risk of symptomatic COVID-19. Methods: EPICOS is a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted in 51 hospitals in Spain, Bolivia, and Venezuela. Healthcare workers with negative SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG test were randomly assigned to: daily TDF/FTC plus HCQ for 12 weeks, TDF/FTC plus HCQ placebo, HCQ plus TDF/FTC placebo and TDF/FTC placebo plus HCQ placebo. The primary outcome was laboratory-confirmed, symptomatic COVID-19. We also studied any (symptomatic or asymptomatic) COVID-19 infection. We compared group-specific 14-week risks via differences and ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Of 1002 individuals screened, 926 (92.4%) were eligible; 64.2% recruited in Spain, 22.3% in Bolivia, and 13.6% in Venezuela. Median age was 38 years (range 18 - 68), 62.5% were female, 62.3% worked at inpatient care, and comorbidities were rare. Compared with the placebo group, 14-week risk ratios (95% CI) of symptomatic COVID-19 were 0.39 (0.00, 1.98) for TDF+HCQ, 0.34 (0.00, 2.06) for TDF, and 0.49 (0.00, 2.29) for HCQ. Corresponding risk ratios of any COVID-19 were 0.51 (0.21, 1.00) for TDF+HCQ, 0.81 (0.44, 1.49) for TDF, and 0.73 (0.41, 1.38) for HCQ. Adverse events were generally mild. Conclusion: A beneficial effect of TDF/FTC and HCQ, alone or in combination, as pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 cannot be ruled out but effect estimates are imprecise because the target sample size was not met. These findings support launching randomized trials of TDF/FTC for the early treatment of COVID-19.
Lea et al., Human Immunodeficiency Virus Status, Tenofovir Exposure, and the Risk of Poor Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) Outcomes: Real-World Analysis From 6 United States Cohorts Before Vaccine Rollout, Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciad084
AbstractBackgroundPeople with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PWH) may be at increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. We examined HIV status and COVID-19 severity, and whether tenofovir, used by PWH for HIV treatment and people without HIV (PWoH) for HIV prevention, was associated with protection.MethodsWithin 6 cohorts of PWH and PWoH in the United States, we compared the 90-day risk of any hospitalization, COVID-19 hospitalization, and mechanical ventilation or death by HIV status and by prior exposure to tenofovir, among those with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection between 1 March and 30 November 2020. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) were estimated by targeted maximum likelihood estimation, with adjustment for demographics, cohort, smoking, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, calendar period of first infection, and CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA levels (in PWH only).ResultsAmong PWH (n = 1785), 15% were hospitalized for COVID-19 and 5% received mechanical ventilation or died, compared with 6% and 2%, respectively, for PWoH (n = 189 351). Outcome prevalence was lower for PWH and PWoH with prior tenofovir use. In adjusted analyses, PWH were at increased risk compared with PWoH for any hospitalization (aRR, 1.31 [95% confidence interval, 1.20–1.44]), COVID-19 hospitalizations (1.29 [1.15–1.45]), and mechanical ventilation or death (1.51 [1.19–1.92]). Prior tenofovir use was associated with reduced hospitalizations among PWH (aRR, 0.85 [95% confidence interval, .73–.99]) and PWoH (0.71 [.62–.81]).ConclusionsBefore COVID-19 vaccine availability, PWH were at greater risk for severe outcomes than PWoH. Tenofovir was associated with a significant reduction in clinical events for both PWH and PWoH.
Rombini et al., Tenofovir-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy and Clinical Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in People Living with HIV, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v15051127
Tenofovir has been hypothesized to be effective against COVID-19 and is available as two prodrugs, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), both part of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) might be at higher risk for COVID-19 progression; however, information about the impact of tenofovir on COVID-19 clinical outcomes remains controversial. The COVIDARE is a prospective observational multicentric study in Argentina. PLWH with COVID-19 were enrolled from September 2020 to mid-June 2022. Patients were stratified according to baseline ART into those with tenofovir (TDF or TAF) and those without. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of tenofovir vs. non-tenofovir-containing regimens on major clinical outcomes. Of the 1155 subjects evaluated, 927 (80%) received tenofovir-based ART (79% TDF, 21% TAF) whilst the remaining population was under non-tenofovir regimens. The non-tenofovir group had older age and a higher prevalence of heart and kidney disease. Regarding the prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19, tomographic findings, hospitalization, and mortality, no differences were observed. The oxygen therapy requirement was higher in the non-tenofovir group. In the multivariate analyses, a first model with adjustment for viral load, CD4 T-cell count, and overall comorbidities showed that oxygen requirement was associated with non-tenofovir ART. In a second model with adjustment by chronic kidney disease, tenofovir exposure was not statistically significant.
Onyango, O., In Silico Models for Anti-COVID-19 Drug Discovery: A Systematic Review, Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1155/2023/4562974
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe worldwide pandemic. Due to the emergence of various SARS-CoV-2 variants and the presence of only one Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved anti-COVID-19 drug (remdesivir), the disease remains a mindboggling global public health problem. Developing anti-COVID-19 drug candidates that are effective against SARS-CoV-2 and its various variants is a pressing need that should be satisfied. This systematic review assesses the existing literature that used in silico models during the discovery procedure of anti-COVID-19 drugs. Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and PubMed were used to conduct a literature search to find the relevant articles utilizing the search terms “In silico model,” “COVID-19,” “Anti-COVID-19 drug,” “Drug discovery,” “Computational drug designing,” and “Computer-aided drug design.” Studies published in English between 2019 and December 2022 were included in the systematic review. From the 1120 articles retrieved from the databases and reference lists, only 33 were included in the review after the removal of duplicates, screening, and eligibility assessment. Most of the articles are studies that use SARS-CoV-2 proteins as drug targets. Both ligand-based and structure-based methods were utilized to obtain lead anti-COVID-19 drug candidates. Sixteen articles also assessed absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET), and drug-likeness properties. Confirmation of the inhibitory ability of the candidate leads by in vivo or in vitro assays was reported in only five articles. Virtual screening, molecular docking (MD), and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) emerged as the most commonly utilized in silico models for anti-COVID-19 drug discovery.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Tsuji, M., Virtual Screening and Quantum Chemistry Analysis for SARS-CoV-2 RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Using the ChEMBL Database: Reproduction of the Remdesivir-RTP and Favipiravir-RTP Binding Modes Obtained from Cryo-EM Experiments with High Binding Affinity, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms231911009
The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified as the pathogenic cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2 is a potential target for the treatment of COVID-19. An RdRp complex:dsRNA structure suitable for docking simulations was prepared using a cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure (PDB ID: 7AAP; resolution, 2.60 Å) that was reported recently. Structural refinement was performed using energy calculations. Structure-based virtual screening was performed using the ChEMBL database. Through 1,838,257 screenings, 249 drugs (37 approved, 93 clinical, and 119 preclinical drugs) were predicted to exhibit a high binding affinity for the RdRp complex:dsRNA. Nine nucleoside triphosphate analogs with anti-viral activity were included among these hit drugs, and among them, remdesivir-ribonucleoside triphosphate and favipiravir-ribonucleoside triphosphate adopted a similar docking mode as that observed in the cryo-EM structure. Additional docking simulations for the predicted compounds with high binding affinity for the RdRp complex:dsRNA suggested that 184 bioactive compounds could be anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug candidates. The hit bioactive compounds mainly consisted of a typical noncovalent major groove binder for dsRNA. Three-layer ONIOM (MP2/6-31G:AM1:AMBER) geometry optimization calculations and frequency analyses (MP2/6-31G:AMBER) were performed to estimate the binding free energy of a representative bioactive compound obtained from the docking simulation, and the fragment molecular orbital calculation at the MP2/6-31G level of theory was subsequently performed for analyzing the detailed interactions. The procedure used in this study represents a possible strategy for discovering anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs from drug libraries that could significantly shorten the clinical development period for drug repositioning.
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