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Sulfasalazine for COVID-19

Sulfasalazine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Wang et al., Repurposing Drugs for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Its Cardiovascular Manifestations, Circulation Research, doi:10.1161/circresaha.122.321879
COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 leading to the ongoing global pandemic. Infected patients developed a range of respiratory symptoms, including respiratory failure, as well as other extrapulmonary complications. Multiple comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic kidney diseases, are associated with the severity and increased mortality of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection also causes a range of cardiovascular complications, including myocarditis, myocardial injury, heart failure, arrhythmias, acute coronary syndrome, and venous thromboembolism. Although a variety of methods have been developed and many clinical trials have been launched for drug repositioning for COVID-19, treatments that consider cardiovascular manifestations and cardiovascular disease comorbidities specifically are limited. In this review, we summarize recent advances in drug repositioning for COVID-19, including experimental drug repositioning, high-throughput drug screening, omics data-based, and network medicine-based computational drug repositioning, with particular attention on those drug treatments that consider cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19. We discuss prospective opportunities and potential methods for repurposing drugs to treat cardiovascular complications of COVID-19.
Sperry et al., Target-agnostic drug prediction integrated with medical record analysis uncovers differential associations of statins with increased survival in COVID-19 patients, PLOS Computational Biology, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1011050 (Table 2)
Drug repurposing requires distinguishing established drug class targets from novel molecule-specific mechanisms and rapidly derisking their therapeutic potential in a time-critical manner, particularly in a pandemic scenario. In response to the challenge to rapidly identify treatment options for COVID-19, several studies reported that statins, as a drug class, reduce mortality in these patients. However, it is unknown if different statins exhibit consistent function or may have varying therapeutic benefit. A Bayesian network tool was used to predict drugs that shift the host transcriptomic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection towards a healthy state. Drugs were predicted using 14 RNA-sequencing datasets from 72 autopsy tissues and 465 COVID-19 patient samples or from cultured human cells and organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2. Top drug predictions included statins, which were then assessed using electronic medical records containing over 4,000 COVID-19 patients on statins to determine mortality risk in patients prescribed specific statins versus untreated matched controls. The same drugs were tested in Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and human endothelial cells infected with a related OC43 coronavirus. Simvastatin was among the most highly predicted compounds (14/14 datasets) and five other statins, including atorvastatin, were predicted to be active in > 50% of analyses. Analysis of the clinical database revealed that reduced mortality risk was only observed in COVID-19 patients prescribed a subset of statins, including simvastatin and atorvastatin. In vitro testing of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells revealed simvastatin to be a potent direct inhibitor whereas most other statins were less effective. Simvastatin also inhibited OC43 infection and reduced cytokine production in endothelial cells. Statins may differ in their ability to sustain the lives of COVID-19 patients despite having a shared drug target and lipid-modifying mechanism of action. These findings highlight the value of target-agnostic drug prediction coupled with patient databases to identify and clinically evaluate non-obvious mechanisms and derisk and accelerate drug repurposing opportunities.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of over 100,000 datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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