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Savinin for COVID-19

Savinin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Ramezani et al., Effect of herbal compounds on inhibition of coronavirus; A systematic review and meta-analysis, Authorea, Inc., doi:10.22541/au.170668000.04030360/v1
The outbreak of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) has been transferred exponentially. There are many articles that have found the inhibitory effect of plant extracts or plant compounds on the coronavirus family. In this study, we want to use systematic review and meta-analysis to answer the question of which herbal compound can be more effective against the coronavirus. The present study is based on the guidelines for conducting meta-analyzes. An extensive search was conducted in the electronic database, and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, articles were selected and data screening was performed. Quality control of articles was performed. Data analysis was carried out in STATA software. The results showed that alkaloid compounds had a good effect in controlling the coronavirus and reducing viral titer. Trypthantrin, Sambucus extract, S. cusia extract, Boceprevir and Indigole B, dioica agglutinin urtica had a good effect on reducing the virus titer but their selectivity index has not been reported and it is recommended to determine for these compounds. Also among the compounds that had the greatest effect on virus inhibition, including Saikosaponins B2, SaikosaponinsD, SaikosaponinsA and Phillyrin, had an acceptable selectivity index greater than 10. Andrographolide showed the highest selectivity index on SARS-COV2, while virus titration and virus inhibition were not reported. The small number of studies that used alkaloid compounds was one of the limitations and it is suggested to investigate the effect of more alkaloid compounds against the coronavirus for verifying its effect.
Naderi Beni et al., In silico studies of anti-oxidative and hot temperament-based phytochemicals as natural inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0295014
Main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is considered one of the key targets due to its role in viral replication. The use of traditional phytochemicals is an important part of complementary/alternative medicine, which also accompany the concept of temperament, where it has been shown that hot medicines cure cold and cold medicines cure hot, with cold and hot pattern being associated with oxidative and anti-oxidative properties in medicine, respectively. Molecular docking in this study has demonstrated that a number of anti-oxidative and hot temperament-based phytochemicals have high binding affinities to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, both in the monomeric and dimeric deposited states of the protein. The highest ranking phytochemicals identified in this study included savinin, betulinic acid and curcumin. Complexes of savinin, betulinic acid, curcumin as well as Nirmatrelvir (the only approved inhibitor, used for comparison) bound to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro were further subjected to molecular dynamics simulations. Subsequently, RMSD, RMSF, Rg, number of hydrogen bonds, binding free energies and residue contributions (using MM-PBSA) and buried surface area (BSA), were analysed. The computational results suggested high binding affinities of savinin, betulinic acid and curcumin to both the monomeric and dimeric deposited states of Mpro, while highlighting the lower binding energy of betulinic acid in comparison with savinin and curcumin and even Nirmatrelvir, leading to a greater stability of the betulinic acid-SARS-CoV-2 Mpro complex. Overall, based on the increasing mutation rate in the spike protein and the fact that the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro remains highly conserved, this study provides an insight into the use of phytochemicals against COVID-19 and other coronavirus diseases.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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