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Raltegravir for COVID-19

Raltegravir has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Masoudi-Sobhanzadeh et al., Structure-based drug repurposing against COVID-19 and emerging infectious diseases: methods, resources and discoveries, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbab113
AbstractTo attain promising pharmacotherapies, researchers have applied drug repurposing (DR) techniques to discover the candidate medicines to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Although many DR approaches have been introduced for treating different diseases, only structure-based DR (SBDR) methods can be employed as the first therapeutic option against the COVID-19 pandemic because they rely on the rudimentary information about the diseases such as the sequence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 genome. Hence, to try out new treatments for the disease, the first attempts have been made based on the SBDR methods which seem to be among the proper choices for discovering the potential medications against the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Given the importance of SBDR approaches, in the present review, well-known SBDR methods are summarized, and their merits are investigated. Then, the databases and software applications, utilized for repurposing the drugs against COVID-19, are introduced. Besides, the identified drugs are categorized based on their targets. Finally, a comparison is made between the SBDR approaches and other DR methods, and some possible future directions are proposed.
Sharun et al., A comprehensive review on pharmacologic agents, immunotherapies and supportive therapeutics for COVID-19, Narra J, doi:10.52225/narra.v2i3.92
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected many countries throughout the world. As urgency is a necessity, most efforts have focused on identifying small molecule drugs that can be repurposed for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Although several drug candidates have been identified using in silico method and in vitro studies, most of these drugs require the support of in vivo data before they can be considered for clinical trials. Several drugs are considered promising therapeutic agents for COVID-19. In addition to the direct-acting antiviral drugs, supportive therapies including traditional Chinese medicine, immunotherapies, immunomodulators, and nutritional therapy could contribute a major role in treating COVID-19 patients. Some of these drugs have already been included in the treatment guidelines, recommendations, and standard operating procedures. In this article, we comprehensively review the approved and potential therapeutic drugs, immune cells-based therapies, immunomodulatory agents/drugs, herbs and plant metabolites, nutritional and dietary for COVID-19.
Kumar et al., In Silico Identification and Docking-Based Drug Repurposing Against the Main Protease of SARS-CoV-2, Causative Agent of COVID-19, American Chemical Society (ACS), doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12049590.v1
The rapidly enlarging COVID-19 pandemic caused by novel SARS-coronavirus 2 is a globalpublic health emergency of unprecedented level. Therefore the need of a drug or vaccine thatcounter SARS-CoV-2 is an utmost requirement at this time. Upon infection the ssRNA genomeof SARS-CoV-2 is translated into large polyprotein which further processed into differentnonstructural proteins to form viral replication complex by virtue of virus specific proteases:main protease (3-CL protease) and papain protease. This indispensable function of main proteasein virus replication makes this enzyme a promising target for the development of inhibitors andpotential treatment therapy for novel coronavirus infection. The recently concluded α-ketoamideligand bound X-ray crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro (PDB ID: 6Y2F) from Zhang et al.has revealed the potential inhibitor binding mechanism and the determinants responsible forinvolved molecular interactions. Here, we have carried out a virtual screening and moleculardocking study of FDA approved drugs primarily targeted for other viral infections, to investigatetheir binding affinity in Mpro active site. Virtual screening has identified a number of antiviraldrugs, top ten of which on the basis of their bending energy score are further examined through molecular docking with Mpro. Docking studies revealed that drug Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Tipranavirand Raltegravir among others binds in the active site of the protease with similar or higheraffinity than the crystal bound inhibitor α-ketoamide. However, the in-vitro efficacies of the drugmolecules tested in this study, further needs to be corroborated by carrying out biochemical andstructural investigation. Moreover, this study advances the potential use of existing drugs to beinvestigated and used to contain the rapidly expanding SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Ruan et al., Virtual high-throughput screening: Potential inhibitors targeting aminopeptidase N (CD13) and PIKfyve for SARS-CoV-2, Open Life Sciences, doi:10.1515/biol-2022-0637
Abstract Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus nearly 3 years ago, the world’s public health has been under constant threat. At the same time, people’s travel and social interaction have also been greatly affected. The study focused on the potential host targets of SARS-CoV-2, CD13, and PIKfyve, which may be involved in viral infection and the viral/cell membrane fusion stage of SARS-CoV-2 in humans. In this study, electronic virtual high-throughput screening for CD13 and PIKfyve was conducted using Food and Drug Administration-approved compounds in ZINC database. The results showed that dihydroergotamine, Saquinavir, Olysio, Raltegravir, and Ecteinascidin had inhibitory effects on CD13. Dihydroergotamine, Sitagliptin, Olysio, Grazoprevir, and Saquinavir could inhibit PIKfyve. After 50 ns of molecular dynamics simulation, seven compounds showed stability at the active site of the target protein. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces were formed with target proteins. At the same time, the seven compounds showed good binding free energy after binding to the target proteins, providing potential drug candidates for the treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 variants.
Zapata-Cardona et al., In vitro and in silico evaluation of antiretrovirals against SARS-CoV-2: A drug repurposing approach, AIMS Microbiology, doi:10.3934/microbiol.2023002
<abstract><sec> <title>Background</title> <p>Drug repurposing is a valuable strategy for rapidly developing drugs for treating COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the antiviral effect of six antiretrovirals against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in silico.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Methods</title> <p>The cytotoxicity of lamivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir, abacavir, efavirenz and raltegravir on Vero E6 was evaluated by MTT assay. The antiviral activity of each of these compounds was evaluated via a pre-post treatment strategy. The reduction in the viral titer was assessed by plaque assay. In addition, the affinities of the antiretroviral interaction with viral targets RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), ExoN-NSP10 (exoribonuclease and its cofactor, the non-structural protein 10) complex and 3CLpro (3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease) were evaluated by molecular docking.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Results</title> <p>Lamivudine exhibited antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 at 200 µM (58.3%) and 100 µM (66.7%), while emtricitabine showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity at 100 µM (59.6%), 50 µM (43.4%) and 25 µM (33.3%). Raltegravir inhibited SARS-CoV-2 at 25, 12.5 and 6.3 µM (43.3%, 39.9% and 38.2%, respectively). The interaction between the antiretrovirals and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, ExoN-NSP10 and 3CLpro yielded favorable binding energies (from −4.9 kcal/mol to −7.7 kcal/mol) using bioinformatics methods.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Conclusion</title> <p>Lamivudine, emtricitabine and raltegravir showed in vitro antiviral effects against the D614G strain of SARS-CoV-2. Raltegravir was the compound with the greatest in vitro antiviral potential at low concentrations, and it showed the highest binding affinities with crucial SARS-CoV-2 proteins during the viral replication cycle. However, further studies on the therapeutic utility of raltegravir in patients with COVID-19 are required.</p> </sec></abstract>
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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