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NH4Cl for COVID-19

NH4Cl has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Cesar-Silva et al., Lipid compartments and lipid metabolism as therapeutic targets against coronavirus, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1268854
Lipids perform a series of cellular functions, establishing cell and organelles’ boundaries, organizing signaling platforms, and creating compartments where specific reactions occur. Moreover, lipids store energy and act as secondary messengers whose distribution is tightly regulated. Disruption of lipid metabolism is associated with many diseases, including those caused by viruses. In this scenario, lipids can favor virus replication and are not solely used as pathogens’ energy source. In contrast, cells can counteract viruses using lipids as weapons. In this review, we discuss the available data on how coronaviruses profit from cellular lipid compartments and why targeting lipid metabolism may be a powerful strategy to fight these cellular parasites. We also provide a formidable collection of data on the pharmacological approaches targeting lipid metabolism to impair and treat coronavirus infection.
Shang et al., Inhibitors of endosomal acidification suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication and relieve viral pneumonia in hACE2 transgenic mice, Virology Journal, doi:10.1186/s12985-021-01515-1
Abstract Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and broke out as a global pandemic in late 2019. The acidic pH environment of endosomes is believed to be essential for SARS-CoV-2 to be able to enter cells and begin replication. However, the clinical use of endosomal acidification inhibitors, typically chloroquine, has been controversial with this respect. Methods In this study, RT-qPCR method was used to detect the SARS-CoV-2N gene to evaluate viral replication. The CCK-8 assay was also used to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of SARS-CoV-2. In situ hybridization was used to examine the distribution of the SARS-CoV-2 gene in lung tissues. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was also used to evaluate virus-associated pathological changes in lung tissues. Results In this study, analysis showed that endosomal acidification inhibitors, including chloroquine, bafilomycin A1 and NH4CL, significantly reduced the viral yields of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6, Huh-7 and 293T-ACE2 cells. Chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 also improved the viability and proliferation of Vero E6 cells after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, in the hACE2 transgenic mice model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 reduced viral replication in lung tissues and alleviated viral pneumonia with reduced inflammatory exudation and infiltration in peribronchiolar and perivascular tissues, as well as improved structures of alveolar septum and pulmonary alveoli. Conclusions Our research investigated the antiviral effects of endosomal acidification inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 in several infection models and provides an experimental basis for further mechanistic studies and drug development.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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