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NBCoV63 for COVID-19

NBCoV63 has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Curreli et al., Discovery of Highly Potent Small Molecule Pan-Coronavirus Fusion Inhibitors, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v15041001
The unprecedented pandemic of COVID-19, caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and its highly transmissible variants, led to massive human suffering, death, and economic devastation worldwide. Recently, antibody-evasive SARS-CoV-2 subvariants, BQ and XBB, have been reported. Therefore, the continued development of novel drugs with pan-coronavirus inhibition is critical to treat and prevent infection of COVID-19 and any new pandemics that may emerge. We report the discovery of several highly potent small-molecule inhibitors. One of which, NBCoV63, showed low nM potency against SARS-CoV-2 (IC50: 55 nM), SARS-CoV-1 (IC50: 59 nM), and MERS-CoV (IC50: 75 nM) in pseudovirus-based assays with excellent selectivity indices (SI > 900), suggesting its pan-coronavirus inhibition. NBCoV63 showed equally effective antiviral potency against SARS-CoV-2 mutant (D614G) and several variants of concerns (VOCs) such as B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.1.529/BA.1 and BA.4/BA.5 (Omicron), and K417T/E484K/N501Y (Gamma). NBCoV63 also showed similar efficacy profiles to Remdesivir against authentic SARS-CoV-2 (Hong Kong strain) and two of its variants (Delta and Omicron), SARS-CoV-1, and MERS-CoV by plaque reduction in Calu-3 cells. Additionally, we show that NBCoV63 inhibits virus-mediated cell-to-cell fusion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data of NBCoV63 demonstrated drug-like properties.
Freidel et al., Research Progress on Spike-Dependent SARS-CoV-2 Fusion Inhibitors and Small Molecules Targeting the S2 Subunit of Spike, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v16050712
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, extensive drug repurposing efforts have sought to identify small-molecule antivirals with various mechanisms of action. Here, we aim to review research progress on small-molecule viral entry and fusion inhibitors that directly bind to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Early in the pandemic, numerous small molecules were identified in drug repurposing screens and reported to be effective in in vitro SARS-CoV-2 viral entry or fusion inhibitors. However, given minimal experimental information regarding the exact location of small-molecule binding sites on Spike, it was unclear what the specific mechanism of action was or where the exact binding sites were on Spike for some inhibitor candidates. The work of countless researchers has yielded great progress, with the identification of many viral entry inhibitors that target elements on the S1 receptor-binding domain (RBD) or N-terminal domain (NTD) and disrupt the S1 receptor-binding function. In this review, we will also focus on highlighting fusion inhibitors that target inhibition of the S2 fusion function, either by disrupting the formation of the postfusion S2 conformation or alternatively by stabilizing structural elements of the prefusion S2 conformation to prevent conformational changes associated with S2 function. We highlight experimentally validated binding sites on the S1/S2 interface and on the S2 subunit. While most substitutions to the Spike protein to date in variants of concern (VOCs) have been localized to the S1 subunit, the S2 subunit sequence is more conserved, with only a few observed substitutions in proximity to S2 binding sites. Several recent small molecules targeting S2 have been shown to have robust activity over recent VOC mutant strains and/or greater broad-spectrum antiviral activity for other more distantly related coronaviruses.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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