Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Nitric Oxide
Peg.. Lambda

Home   COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 studies   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Alkalinization Meta Lactoferrin Meta
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta

Other Treatments Global Adoption

Lopinavir for COVID-19

Lopinavir has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Nayak et al., Prospects of Novel and Repurposed Immunomodulatory Drugs against Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Associated with COVID-19 Disease, Journal of Personalized Medicine, doi:10.3390/jpm13040664
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is intricately linked with SARS-CoV-2-associated disease severity and mortality, especially in patients with co-morbidities. Lung tissue injury caused as a consequence of ARDS leads to fluid build-up in the alveolar sacs, which in turn affects oxygen supply from the capillaries. ARDS is a result of a hyperinflammatory, non-specific local immune response (cytokine storm), which is aggravated as the virus evades and meddles with protective anti-viral innate immune responses. Treatment and management of ARDS remain a major challenge, first, because the condition develops as the virus keeps replicating and, therefore, immunomodulatory drugs are required to be used with caution. Second, the hyperinflammatory responses observed during ARDS are quite heterogeneous and dependent on the stage of the disease and the clinical history of the patients. In this review, we present different anti-rheumatic drugs, natural compounds, monoclonal antibodies, and RNA therapeutics and discuss their application in the management of ARDS. We also discuss on the suitability of each of these drug classes at different stages of the disease. In the last section, we discuss the potential applications of advanced computational approaches in identifying reliable drug targets and in screening out credible lead compounds against ARDS.
Oner et al., Investigation of antiviral substances in Covid 19 by Molecular Docking: In Silico Study, African Health Sciences, doi:10.4314/ahs.v23i1.4
Aims: This paper aimed to investigate the antiviral drugs against Sars-Cov-2 main protease (MPro) using in silico methods.
 Material and Method: A search was made for antiviral drugs in the PubChem database and antiviral drugs such as Bictegravir, Emtricitabine, Entecavir, Lamivudine, Tenofovir, Favipiravir, Hydroxychloroquine, Lopinavir, Oseltamavir, Remdevisir, Ribavirin, Ritonavir were included in our study. The protein structure of Sars-Cov-2 Mpro (PDB ID: 6LU7) was taken from the Protein Data Bank (www.rcsb. Org) system and included in our study. Molecular docking was performed using AutoDock/Vina, a computational docking program. Protein-ligand interactions were performed with the AutoDock Vina program. 3D visualizations were made with the Discovery Studio 2020 program. N3 inhibitor method was used for our validation.
 Results: In the present study, bictegravir, remdevisir and lopinavir compounds in the Sars-Cov-2 Mpro structure showed higher binding affinity compared to the antiviral compounds N3 inhibitor, according to our molecular insertion results. However, the favipiravir, emtricitabine and lamuvidune compounds were detected very low binding affinity. Other antiviral compounds were found close binding affinity with the N3 inhibitor.
 Conclusion: Bictegravir, remdevisir and lopinavir drugs showed very good results compared to the N3 inhibitor. Therefore, they could be inhibitory in the Sars Cov-2 Mpro target.
 Keywords: Sars-CoV-2 Main Protease; Antiviral Drugs; Molecular Docking
Astasio-Picado et al., Therapeutic Targets in the Virological Mechanism and in the Hyperinflammatory Response of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Applied Sciences, doi:10.3390/app13074471
This work is a bibliographic review. The search for the necessary information was carried out in the months of November 2022 and January 2023. The databases used were as follows: Pubmed, Academic Google, Scielo, Scopus, and Cochrane library. Results: In total, 101 articles were selected after a review of 486 articles from databases and after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The update on the molecular mechanism of human coronavirus (HCoV) infection was reviewed, describing possible therapeutic targets in the viral response phase. There are different strategies to prevent or hinder the introduction of the viral particle, as well as the replicative mechanism ((protease inhibitors and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)). The second phase of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) involves the activation of hyperinflammatory cascades of the host’s immune system. It is concluded that there are potential therapeutic targets and drugs under study in different proinflammatory pathways such as hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, interleukin 1 and 6 inhibitors, and interferons.
Khaerunnisa et al., Potential Inhibitor of COVID-19 Main Protease (M<sup>pro</sup>) From Several Medicinal Plant Compounds by Molecular Docking Study, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0226.v1
COVID-19, a new strain of coronavirus (CoV), was identified in Wuhan, China, in 2019. No specific therapies are available and investigations regarding COVID-19 treatment are lacking. Liu et al. (2020) successfully crystallised the COVID-19 main protease (Mpro), which is a potential drug target. The present study aimed to assess bioactive compounds found in medicinal plants as potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using a molecular docking study. Molecular docking was performed using Autodock 4.2, with the Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm, to analyse the probability of docking. COVID-19 Mpro was docked with several compounds, and docking was analysed by Autodock 4.2, Pymol version Edu, and Biovia Discovery Studio 4.5. Nelfinavir and lopinavir were used as standards for comparison. The binding energies obtained from the docking of 6LU7 with native ligand, nelfinavir, lopinavir, kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, epicatechin-gallate, zingerol, gingerol, and allicin were -8.37, -10.72, -9.41, -8.58, -8.47, -8.17, -7.99, -7.89, -7.83, -7.31, -7.05, -7.24, -6.67, -5.40, -5.38, and -4.03 kcal/mol, respectively. Therefore, nelfinavir and lopinavir may represent potential treatment options, and kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, and epicatechin-gallate appeared to have the best potential to act as COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors. However, further research is necessary to investigate their potential medicinal use.
Talukdar et al., Potential Drugs for COVID -19 Treatment Management With Their Contraindications and Drug- Drug Interaction, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0690.v1
Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCOV) causes inflammatory response with worsening symptoms. Classification of potential anti-viral and anti-inflammatory drugs in managing the symptoms of the COVID-19 and reducing morbidity is important. The objective of this study is to identify a group of drugs, best suited for COVID-19 treatment based on recent developments in clinical trials, FDA drug evaluation, directions and developments and from drug therapies globally. Online literature search was done on Medline, PubMed and google scholar databases for studies on various treatments and drug therapies for COVID-19 and relevant studies were identified and the identified drugs are described in detail as per their Pharmacological, pharmaceutical properties of the drugs, mechanism of action, current COVID-19 drug therapy, contraindications and drug-drug interactions Certain drugs can inhibit action against viral infection and protect lungs from severe inflammatory response. This article summarizes several drugs like Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Dexamethasone, Ivermectin, Baricitinib, Casirivimab / imdevimab, Bamlanivimab along with auxiliary treatment like convalescent plasma transfusion. Remdesivir is first drug approved by FDA. Hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone and remdesivir are showing results against COVID-19 but it is important to test the efficacy and safety of such drugs though some drugs have shown remarkable results.
Guo et al., Enhanced compound-protein binding affinity prediction by representing protein multimodal information via a coevolutionary strategy, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbac628
Abstract Due to the lack of a method to efficiently represent the multimodal information of a protein, including its structure and sequence information, predicting compound-protein binding affinity (CPA) still suffers from low accuracy when applying machine-learning methods. To overcome this limitation, in a novel end-to-end architecture (named FeatNN), we develop a coevolutionary strategy to jointly represent the structure and sequence features of proteins and ultimately optimize the mathematical models for predicting CPA. Furthermore, from the perspective of data-driven approach, we proposed a rational method that can utilize both high- and low-quality databases to optimize the accuracy and generalization ability of FeatNN in CPA prediction tasks. Notably, we visually interpret the feature interaction process between sequence and structure in the rationally designed architecture. As a result, FeatNN considerably outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) baseline in virtual drug evaluation tasks, indicating the feasibility of this approach for practical use. FeatNN provides an outstanding method for higher CPA prediction accuracy and better generalization ability by efficiently representing multimodal information of proteins via a coevolutionary strategy.
Mousavi et al., Novel Drug Design for Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies, Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, doi:10.1155/2022/2044282
Background. Since the beginning of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease outbreak, there has been an increasing interest in discovering potential therapeutic agents for this disease. In this regard, we conducted a systematic review through an overview of drug development (in silico, in vitro, and in vivo) for treating COVID-19. Methods. A systematic search was carried out in major databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar from December 2019 to March 2021. A combination of the following terms was used: coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, drug design, drug development, In silico, In vitro, and In vivo. A narrative synthesis was performed as a qualitative method for the data synthesis of each outcome measure. Results. A total of 2168 articles were identified through searching databases. Finally, 315 studies (266 in silico, 34 in vitro, and 15 in vivo) were included. In studies with in silico approach, 98 article study repurposed drug and 91 studies evaluated herbal medicine on COVID-19. Among 260 drugs repurposed by the computational method, the best results were observed with saquinavir (n = 9), ritonavir (n = 8), and lopinavir (n = 6). Main protease (n = 154) following spike glycoprotein (n = 62) and other nonstructural protein of virus (n = 45) was among the most studied targets. Doxycycline, chlorpromazine, azithromycin, heparin, bepridil, and glycyrrhizic acid showed both in silico and in vitro inhibitory effects against SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion. The preclinical studies of novel drug design for COVID-19 focused on main protease and spike glycoprotein as targets for antiviral development. From evaluated structures, saquinavir, ritonavir, eucalyptus, Tinospora cordifolia, aloe, green tea, curcumin, pyrazole, and triazole derivatives in in silico studies and doxycycline, chlorpromazine, and heparin from in vitro and human monoclonal antibodies from in vivo studies showed promised results regarding efficacy. It seems that due to the nature of COVID-19 disease, finding some drugs with multitarget antiviral actions and anti-inflammatory potential is valuable and some herbal medicines have this potential.
Zhong et al., Recent advances in small-molecular therapeutics for COVID-19, Precision Clinical Medicine, doi:10.1093/pcmedi/pbac024
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic poses a fundamental challenge to global health. Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, great efforts have been made to identify antiviral strategies and develop therapeutic drugs to combat the disease. There are different strategies for developing small molecular anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, including targeting coronavirus structural proteins (e.g. spike protein), non-structural proteins (nsp) (e.g. RdRp, Mpro, PLpro, helicase, nsp14, and nsp16), host proteases (e.g. TMPRSS2, cathepsin, and furin) and the pivotal proteins mediating endocytosis (e.g. PIKfyve), as well as developing endosome acidification agents and immune response modulators. Favipiravir and chloroquine are the anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents that were identified earlier in this epidemic and repurposed for COVID-19 clinical therapy based on these strategies. However, their efficacies are controversial. Currently, three small molecular anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents, remdesivir, molnupiravir, and Paxlovid (PF-07321332 plus ritonavir), have been granted emergency use authorization or approved for COVID-19 therapy in many countries due to their significant curative effects in phase III trials. Meanwhile, a large number of promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug candidates have entered clinical evaluation. The development of these drugs brings hope for us to finally conquer COVID-19. In this account, we conducted a comprehensive review of the recent advances in small molecule anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents according to the target classification. Here we present all the approved drugs and most of the important drug candidates for each target, and discuss the challenges and perspectives for the future research and development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.
Mavlankar et al., Interaction of surface glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern with potential drug candidates: A molecular docking study, F1000Research, doi:10.12688/f1000research.109586.1
<ns4:p><ns4:bold>Background:</ns4:bold> COVID-19 has become a global threat. Since its first outbreak from Wuhan, China in December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has gone through structural changes arising due to mutations in its surface glycoprotein. These mutations have led to the emergence of different genetic variants threatening public health due to increased transmission and virulence. As new drug development is a long process, repurposing existing antiviral drugs with potential activity against SARS-CoV-2 might be a possible solution to mitigate the current situation.</ns4:p><ns4:p> <ns4:bold>Methods:</ns4:bold> This study focused on utilizing molecular docking to determine the effect of potential drugs on several variants of concern (VOCs). The effect of various drugs such as baricitinib, favipiravir, lopinavir, remdesivir and dexamethasone, which might have the potential to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections as evident from previous studies, was investigated for different VOCs.</ns4:p><ns4:p> <ns4:bold>Results:</ns4:bold> Remdesivir showed promising results for B.1.351 variant (binding energy: -7.3 kcal/mol) with residues Gln319 and Val503 facilitating strong binding. Favipiravir showed favorable results against B.1.1.7 (binding energy: -5.6 kcal/mol), B.1.351 (binding energy: -5.1 kcal/mol) and B.1.617.2 (binding energy: -5 kcal/mol). Molecular dynamics simulation for favipiravir/B.1.1.7 was conducted and showed significant results in agreement with our findings.</ns4:p><ns4:p> <ns4:bold>Conclusions:</ns4:bold> From structural modeling and molecular docking experiments, it is evident that mutations outside the receptor binding domain of surface glycoprotein do not have a sharp impact on drug binding affinity. Thus, the potential use of these drugs should be explored further for their antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.</ns4:p>
Loucera et al., Real-world evidence with a retrospective cohort of 15,968 Andalusian COVID-19 hospitalized patients suggests 21 new effective treatments and one drug that increases death risk., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.08.14.22278751
Despite the extensive vaccination campaigns in many countries, COVID-19 is still a major worldwide health problem because of its associated morbidity and mortality. Therefore, finding efficient treatments as fast as possible is a pressing need. Drug repurposing constitutes a convenient alternative when the need for new drugs in an unexpected medical scenario is urgent, as is the case with COVID-19. Using data from a central registry of electronic health records (the Andalusian Population Health Database, BPS), the effect of prior consumption of drugs for other indications previous to the hospitalization with respect to patient survival was studied on a retrospective cohort of 15,968 individuals, comprising all COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Andalusia between January and November 2020. Covariate-adjusted hazard ratios and analysis of lymphocyte progression curves support a significant association between consumption of 21 different drugs and better patient survival. Contrarily, one drug, furosemide, displayed a significant increase in patient mortality.
Davarpanah et al., Combination of Spironolactone and Sitagliptin Improves Clinical Outcomes of Outpatients with COVID-19: An Observational Study, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.01.21.22269322
AbstractBackgroundCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to hospitalization and death, especially in elderly and those with comorbidities. There are evidences showing that sitagliptin and spironolactone can potentially improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 cases. In this observational study on acutely symptomatic outpatient COVID-19 cases, we investigated the effects of spironolactone and sitagliptin on the outcomes of the disease.MethodsThis prospective cohort study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Clinics during the fifth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic between July 2021 and September 2021. We followed mild to moderate symptomatic COVID-19 patients, who were treated with either combination (spironolactone 100 mg daily and sitagliptin 100 mg daily) or standard (steroid, antiviral and/or supportive care) therapy up to 30 days. Our primary outcome was hospitalization rate. The secondary outcomes included ER visit, duration of disease, and complications, such as hypoglycemia, low blood pressure or altered mental status.ResultsOf the 206 patients referred to clinics, 103 received standard therapy and 103 treated with combination therapy. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, except for slightly higher clinical score in control group (6.92 ± 4.01 control, 4.87 ± 2.92 combination; P &lt;0.0001). Treatment with combination therapy was associated with lower admission rate (5.8% combination, 22.3% control; P = 0.0011), ER visits (7.8% combination, 23.3% control; P = 0.0021) and average duration of symptoms (6.67 ± 2.30 days combination, 18.71 ± 6.49 days control; P =&lt;0.0001).ConclusionIn this prospective cohort study of acutely ill outpatients with COVID-19, the combination of sitagliptin and spironolactone reduced duration of COVID infection and hospital visits better than standard therapeutic approaches. The effects of combination of sitagliptin and spironolactone in COVID-19 patients should be further verified in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.