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Lamivudine for COVID-19

Lamivudine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
García-Trejo et al., Putative Repurposing of Lamivudine, a Nucleoside/Nucleotide Analogue and Antiretroviral to Improve the Outcome of Cancer and COVID-19 Patients, Frontiers in Oncology, doi:10.3389/fonc.2021.664794
Lamivudine, also widely known as 3TC belongs to a family of nucleotide/nucleoside analogues of cytidine or cytosine that inhibits the Reverse Transcriptase (RT) of retroviruses such as HIV. Lamivudine is currently indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection or for chronic Hepatitis B (HBV) virus infection associated with evidence of hepatitis B viral replication and active liver inflammation. HBV reactivation in patients with HBV infections who receive anticancer chemotherapy can be a life-threatening complication during and after the completion of chemotherapy. Lamivudine is used, as well as other antiretrovirals, to prevent the reactivation of the Hepatitis B virus during and after chemotherapy. In addition, Lamivudine has been shown to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. Lamivudine and other similar analogues also have direct positive effects in the prevention of cancer in hepatitis B or HIV positive patients, independently of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Recently, it has been proposed that Lamivudine might be also repurposed against SARS-CoV-2 in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review we first examine recent reports on the re-usage of Lamivudine or 3TC against the SARS-CoV-2, and we present docking evidence carried out in silico suggesting that Lamivudine may bind and possibly work as an inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp RNA polymerase. We also evaluate and propose assessment of repurposing Lamivudine as anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-COVID-19 antiviral. Secondly, we summarize the published literature on the use of Lamivudine or (3TC) before or during chemotherapy to prevent reactivation of HBV, and examine reports of enhanced effectiveness of radiotherapy in combination with Lamivudine treatment against the cancerous cells or tissues. We show that the anti-cancer properties of Lamivudine are well established, whereas its putative anti-COVID effect is under investigation. The side effects of lamivudine and the appearance of resistance to 3TC are also discussed.
Masoudi-Sobhanzadeh et al., Structure-based drug repurposing against COVID-19 and emerging infectious diseases: methods, resources and discoveries, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbab113
AbstractTo attain promising pharmacotherapies, researchers have applied drug repurposing (DR) techniques to discover the candidate medicines to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Although many DR approaches have been introduced for treating different diseases, only structure-based DR (SBDR) methods can be employed as the first therapeutic option against the COVID-19 pandemic because they rely on the rudimentary information about the diseases such as the sequence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 genome. Hence, to try out new treatments for the disease, the first attempts have been made based on the SBDR methods which seem to be among the proper choices for discovering the potential medications against the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Given the importance of SBDR approaches, in the present review, well-known SBDR methods are summarized, and their merits are investigated. Then, the databases and software applications, utilized for repurposing the drugs against COVID-19, are introduced. Besides, the identified drugs are categorized based on their targets. Finally, a comparison is made between the SBDR approaches and other DR methods, and some possible future directions are proposed.
kumar et al., Drug Repurposing to Identify Therapeutics Against COVID 19 with SARS-Cov-2 Spike Glycoprotein and Main Protease as Targets: An in Silico Study, American Chemical Society (ACS), doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12090408.v1
The total cases of novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) infections is more than one million and total deaths recorded is more than fifty thousand. The research for developing vaccines and drugs against SARS-CoV-2 is going on in different parts of the world. Aim of the present study was to identify potential drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 from existing drugs using in silico molecular modeling and docking. The targets for the present study was the spike protein and the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. The study was able to identify some drugs that can either bind to the spike protein receptor binding domain or the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. These include some of the antiviral drugs. These drugs might have the potential to inhibit the infection and viral replication.
Wei et al., Total network controllability analysis discovers explainable drugs for Covid-19 treatment, Biology Direct, doi:10.1186/s13062-023-00410-9
Abstract Background The active pursuit of network medicine for drug repurposing, particularly for combating Covid-19, has stimulated interest in the concept of structural controllability in cellular networks. We sought to extend this theory, focusing on the defense rather than control of the cell against viral infections. Accordingly, we extended structural controllability to total structural controllability and introduced the concept of control hubs. Perturbing any control hub may render the cell uncontrollable by exogenous stimuli like viral infections, so control hubs are ideal drug targets. Results We developed an efficient algorithm to identify all control hubs, applying it to a largest homogeneous network of human protein interactions, including interactions between human and SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Our method recognized 65 druggable control hubs with enriched antiviral functions. Utilizing these hubs, we categorized potential drugs into four groups: antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents, drugs acting on the central nervous system, dietary supplements, and compounds enhancing immunity. An exemplification of our approach’s effectiveness, Fostamatinib, a drug initially developed for chronic immune thrombocytopenia, is now in clinical trials for treating Covid-19. Preclinical trial data demonstrated that Fostamatinib could reduce mortality rates, ICU stay length, and disease severity in Covid-19 patients. Conclusions Our findings confirm the efficacy of our novel strategy that leverages control hubs as drug targets. This approach provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of potential therapeutics for Covid-19, making it a valuable tool for interpretable drug discovery. Our new approach is general and applicable to repurposing drugs for other diseases.
Zapata-Cardona et al., In vitro and in silico evaluation of antiretrovirals against SARS-CoV-2: A drug repurposing approach, AIMS Microbiology, doi:10.3934/microbiol.2023002
<abstract><sec> <title>Background</title> <p>Drug repurposing is a valuable strategy for rapidly developing drugs for treating COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the antiviral effect of six antiretrovirals against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in silico.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Methods</title> <p>The cytotoxicity of lamivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir, abacavir, efavirenz and raltegravir on Vero E6 was evaluated by MTT assay. The antiviral activity of each of these compounds was evaluated via a pre-post treatment strategy. The reduction in the viral titer was assessed by plaque assay. In addition, the affinities of the antiretroviral interaction with viral targets RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), ExoN-NSP10 (exoribonuclease and its cofactor, the non-structural protein 10) complex and 3CLpro (3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease) were evaluated by molecular docking.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Results</title> <p>Lamivudine exhibited antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 at 200 µM (58.3%) and 100 µM (66.7%), while emtricitabine showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity at 100 µM (59.6%), 50 µM (43.4%) and 25 µM (33.3%). Raltegravir inhibited SARS-CoV-2 at 25, 12.5 and 6.3 µM (43.3%, 39.9% and 38.2%, respectively). The interaction between the antiretrovirals and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, ExoN-NSP10 and 3CLpro yielded favorable binding energies (from −4.9 kcal/mol to −7.7 kcal/mol) using bioinformatics methods.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Conclusion</title> <p>Lamivudine, emtricitabine and raltegravir showed in vitro antiviral effects against the D614G strain of SARS-CoV-2. Raltegravir was the compound with the greatest in vitro antiviral potential at low concentrations, and it showed the highest binding affinities with crucial SARS-CoV-2 proteins during the viral replication cycle. However, further studies on the therapeutic utility of raltegravir in patients with COVID-19 are required.</p> </sec></abstract>
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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