Isoliensinine for COVID-19
Isoliensinine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
In-silico evaluation of natural alkaloids against the main protease and spike glycoprotein as potential therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2, PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0294769 ,
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19 pandemic, which has resulted in global fatalities since late December 2019. Alkaloids play a significant role in drug design for various antiviral diseases, which makes them viable candidates for treating COVID-19. To identify potential antiviral agents, 102 known alkaloids were subjected to docking studies against the two key targets of SARS-CoV-2, namely the spike glycoprotein and main protease. The spike glycoprotein is vital for mediating viral entry into host cells, and main protease plays a crucial role in viral replication; therefore, they serve as compelling targets for therapeutic intervention in combating the disease. From the selection of alkaloids, the top 6 dual inhibitory compounds, namely liensinine, neferine, isoliensinine, fangchinoline, emetine, and acrimarine F, emerged as lead compounds with favorable docked scores. Interestingly, most of them shared the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid framework and belong to Nelumbo nucifera, commonly known as the lotus plant. Docking analysis was conducted by considering the key active site residues of the selected proteins. The stability of the top three ligands with the receptor proteins was further validated through dynamic simulation analysis. The leads underwent ADMET profiling, bioactivity score analysis, and evaluation of drug-likeness and physicochemical properties. Neferine demonstrated a particularly strong affinity for binding, with a docking score of -7.5025 kcal/mol for main protease and -10.0245 kcal/mol for spike glycoprotein, and therefore a strong interaction with both target proteins. Of the lead alkaloids, emetine and fangchinoline demonstrated the lowest toxicity and high LD50 values. These top alkaloids, may support the body’s defense and reduce the symptoms by their numerous biological potentials, even though some properties naturally point to their direct antiviral nature. These findings demonstrate the promising anti-COVID-19 properties of the six selected alkaloids, making them potential candidates for drug design. This study will be beneficial in effective drug discovery and design against COVID-19 with negligible side effects.
Herbal Compounds Dauricine and Isoliensinine Impede SARS-CoV-2 Viral Entry, Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines11112914 ,
Targeting viral entry has been the focal point for the last 3 years due to the continued threat posed by SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2’s entry is highly dependent on the interaction between the virus’s Spike protein and host receptors. The virus’s Spike protein is a key modulator of viral entry, allowing sequential cleavage of ACE2 at the S1/S2 and S2 sites, resulting in the amalgamation of membranes and subsequent entry of the virus. A Polybasic insertion (PRRAR) conveniently located at the S1/S2 site can also be cleaved by furin or by serine protease, TMPRSS2, at the cell surface. Since ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are conveniently located on the surface of host cells, targeting one or both receptors may inhibit receptor-ligand interaction. Here, we show that Dauricine and Isoliensinine, two commonly used herbal compounds, were capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 viral entry by reducing Spike-ACE2 interaction but not suppressing TMPRSS2 protease activity. Further, our biological assays using pseudoviruses engineered to express Spike proteins of different variants revealed a reduction in infection rates following treatment with these compounds. The molecular modeling revealed an interconnection between R403 of Spike protein and both two compounds. Spike mutations at residue R403 are critical, and often utilized by ACE2 to gain cell access. Overall, our findings strongly suggest that Dauricine and Isoliensinine are effective in blocking Spike-ACE2 interaction and may serve as effective therapeutic agents for targeting SARS-CoV-2′s viral entry.
A cell-based large-scale screening of natural compounds for inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2, Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, doi:10.1038/s41392-020-00343-z ,
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