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Ibudilast for COVID-19

Ibudilast has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Ma et al., Integration of human organoids single‐cell transcriptomic profiles and human genetics repurposes critical cell type‐specific drug targets for severe COVID‐19, Cell Proliferation, doi:10.1111/cpr.13558
AbstractHuman organoids recapitulate the cell type diversity and function of their primary organs holding tremendous potentials for basic and translational research. Advances in single‐cell RNA sequencing (scRNA‐seq) technology and genome‐wide association study (GWAS) have accelerated the biological and therapeutic interpretation of trait‐relevant cell types or states. Here, we constructed a computational framework to integrate atlas‐level organoid scRNA‐seq data, GWAS summary statistics, expression quantitative trait loci, and gene–drug interaction data for distinguishing critical cell populations and drug targets relevant to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) severity. We found that 39 cell types across eight kinds of organoids were significantly associated with COVID‐19 outcomes. Notably, subset of lung mesenchymal stem cells increased proximity with fibroblasts predisposed to repair COVID‐19‐damaged lung tissue. Brain endothelial cell subset exhibited significant associations with severe COVID‐19, and this cell subset showed a notable increase in cell‐to‐cell interactions with other brain cell types, including microglia. We repurposed 33 druggable genes, including IFNAR2, TYK2, and VIPR2, and their interacting drugs for COVID‐19 in a cell‐type‐specific manner. Overall, our results showcase that host genetic determinants have cellular‐specific contribution to COVID‐19 severity, and identification of cell type‐specific drug targets may facilitate to develop effective therapeutics for treating severe COVID‐19 and its complications.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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