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Hydroxyzine for COVID-19

Hydroxyzine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
unknown, u., Effectiveness of antihistamines in COVID-19 symptoms: a systematic review studyEffectiveness of Antihistamines in COVID-19 Symptoms: A Systematic Review, Jundishapur Journal of Sciences, doi:10.32592/JSMJ.22.6.800
Background and Objectives This study was aimed to determine the effect of antihistamines on Covid-19 disease. Subjects and Methods Two researchers searched online electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar from the beginning of the pandemic until December 30, 2022 using Mesh and keywords such as: "SARS-CoV-2" or "COVID-19" and "Antihistamine". Results The results depicted that levocetirizine, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, azelastine, dexchlorpheniramine, cetirizine, loratadine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, triprolidine, dimetindene, and famotidine are effective in treating and reducing the symptoms of Covid-19. Among them, famotidine had contradictory results, and although it may be a useful supplement in the treatment of covid-19, laboratory studies have failed to show the direct role of famotidine in controlling this disease. Conclusion From the above-discussed findings regarding antihistamines and Covid-19, specific antihistamines should be identified and included as an essential therapeutic approach for the management of Covid-19 alongside other approaches. In fact, antihistamines appear to be promising in the management of Covid-19 with a short time to relieve symptoms while giving the body enough time to reset its defense mechanism, thus reaching a rapid recovery. They work by both modulating histamine pathways and suppressing virus growth. Despite the fact that more trials and clinical studies still need to be done on the identification and deployment of potential antihistamines in the management of Covid-19, there is not enough time for this given the enormous threat of this global health crisis. Selective antihistamines, particularly histamine H1 receptor antagonists, should now be approved for emergency use for the management of Covid-19.
Alkafaas et al., Molecular docking as a tool for the discovery of novel insight about the role of acid sphingomyelinase inhibitors in SARS- CoV-2 infectivity, BMC Public Health, doi:10.1186/s12889-024-17747-z
AbstractRecently, COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants, caused > 6 million deaths. Symptoms included respiratory strain and complications, leading to severe pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 attaches to the ACE-2 receptor of the host cell membrane to enter. Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 entry may effectively inhibit infection. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) is a lysosomal protein that catalyzes the conversion of sphingolipid (sphingomyelin) to ceramide. Ceramide molecules aggregate/assemble on the plasma membrane to form “platforms” that facilitate the viral intake into the cell. Impairing the ASMase activity will eventually disrupt viral entry into the cell. In this review, we identified the metabolism of sphingolipids, sphingolipids' role in cell signal transduction cascades, and viral infection mechanisms. Also, we outlined ASMase structure and underlying mechanisms inhibiting viral entry 40 with the aid of inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase (FIASMAs). In silico molecular docking analyses of FIASMAs with inhibitors revealed that dilazep (S = − 12.58 kcal/mol), emetine (S = − 11.65 kcal/mol), pimozide (S = − 11.29 kcal/mol), carvedilol (S = − 11.28 kcal/mol), mebeverine (S = − 11.14 kcal/mol), cepharanthine (S = − 11.06 kcal/mol), hydroxyzin (S = − 10.96 kcal/mol), astemizole (S = − 10.81 kcal/mol), sertindole (S = − 10.55 kcal/mol), and bepridil (S = − 10.47 kcal/mol) have higher inhibition activity than the candidate drug amiodarone (S = − 10.43 kcal/mol), making them better options for inhibition.
Islam et al., Molecular-evaluated and explainable drug repurposing for COVID-19 using ensemble knowledge graph embedding, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-30095-z
AbstractThe search for an effective drug is still urgent for COVID-19 as no drug with proven clinical efficacy is available. Finding the new purpose of an approved or investigational drug, known as drug repurposing, has become increasingly popular in recent years. We propose here a new drug repurposing approach for COVID-19, based on knowledge graph (KG) embeddings. Our approach learns “ensemble embeddings” of entities and relations in a COVID-19 centric KG, in order to get a better latent representation of the graph elements. Ensemble KG-embeddings are subsequently used in a deep neural network trained for discovering potential drugs for COVID-19. Compared to related works, we retrieve more in-trial drugs among our top-ranked predictions, thus giving greater confidence in our prediction for out-of-trial drugs. For the first time to our knowledge, molecular docking is then used to evaluate the predictions obtained from drug repurposing using KG embedding. We show that Fosinopril is a potential ligand for the SARS-CoV-2 nsp13 target. We also provide explanations of our predictions thanks to rules extracted from the KG and instanciated by KG-derived explanatory paths. Molecular evaluation and explanatory paths bring reliability to our results and constitute new complementary and reusable methods for assessing KG-based drug repurposing.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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