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Honey for COVID-19

Honey has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Ashraf et al., Honey andNigella sativaagainst COVID-19 in Pakistan (HNS-COVID-PK): A multi-center placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.30.20217364
SUMMARYBACKGROUNDNo definitive treatment exists for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Honey andNigella sativa(HNS) have established antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, we investigated efficacy of HNS against COVID-19. wideMETHODSWe conducted a multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial at 4 centers in Pakistan. RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 adults showing moderate or severe disease were enrolled in the study. Patients presenting with multi-organ failure, ventilator support, and chronic diseases (except diabetes mellitus and hypertension) were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned in 1:1 ratio to receive either honey (1 gm/Kg/day) andNigella sativaseeds (80 mg/Kg/day) or placebo up-to 13 days along with standard care. The outcomes included symptom alleviation, viral clearance, and a 30-day mortality in intention-to-treat population. This trial was registered with,NCT04347382.RESULTSThree hundred and thirteen patients - 210 moderate and 103 severe - underwent randomization from April 30 to July 29, 2020. Among these, 107 were assigned to HNS whereas 103 to placebo for moderate cases. For severe cases, 50 were given HNS and 53 were given placebos. HNS resulted in ∼50% reduction in time taken to alleviate symptoms as compared to placebo (Moderate (4 versus 7 days), Hazard Ratio [HR]: 6.11; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 4.23-8.84, P<0.0001 and severe (6 versus 13 days) HR: 4.04; 95% CI, 2.46-6.64, P<0.0001). HNS also cleared the virus 4 days earlier than placebo group in moderate (6 versus 10 days, HR: 5.53; 95% CI: 3.76-8.14, P<0.0001) and severe cases (8.5 versus 12 days, HR: 4.32; 95% CI: 2.62-7.13, P<0.0001). HNS further led to a better clinical score on day 6 with normal activity resumption in 63.6% versus 10.9% among moderate cases (OR: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.03-0.13, P<0.0001) and hospital discharge in 50% versus 2.8% in severe cases (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.09, P<0.0001). In severe cases, mortality rate was four-fold lower in HNS group than placebo (4% versus 18.87%, OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.02-0.92, P=0.029). No HNS-related adverse effects were observed.CONCLUSIONHNS significantly improved symptoms, viral clearance and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Thus, HNS represents an affordable over the counter therapy and can either be used alone or in combination with other treatments to achieve potentiating effects against COVID-19.FUNDINGFunded by Smile Welfare Organization, Shaikh Zayed Medical Complex, and Services Institute of Medical Sciences.
Mackin et al., Honey as a Natural Nutraceutical: Its Combinational Therapeutic Strategies Applicable to Blood Infections—Septicemia, HIV, SARS-CoV-2, Malaria, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph16081154
Honey is a natural substance that has existed alongside humanity since the time of antiquity, acting then as a source of nutrition, as well as a source of medicinal aid for people. Ancient civilizations from multiple nations of the world, from ancient China to ancient Greece and Egypt, utilized the supposed healing properties of honey to treat lacerations and wounds, as well as for internal pathologies such as intestinal disease. At present, honey has entered the modern scientific research program in search of novel antibiotics. In recent research, honey has demonstrated its potential use for static and/or cidal effects on microbial strains which are becoming resistant to chemical antibiotics. Additionally, the use of honey as an agent of treatment for more severe infections, namely blood infections pertaining to septicemia, HIV, and SARS-CoV-2, as well as parasitic infections such as malaria, have also been investigated in recent years. In this article, the literature has been reviewed on some of the therapeutic properties of natural nutraceutical honey, where it has been observed to act as a potential ameliorating agent; reducing the severity of such conditions that may amplify a disease, as well as reducing the progression of the disease and its symptoms.
Dofuor et al., The Global Impact of COVID-19: Historical Development, Molecular Characterization, Drug Discovery and Future Directions, Clinical Pathology, doi:10.1177/2632010x231218075
In December 2019, an outbreak of a respiratory disease called the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a new coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in Wuhan, China. The SARS-CoV-2, an encapsulated positive-stranded RNA virus, spread worldwide with disastrous consequences for people’s health, economies, and quality of life. The disease has had far-reaching impacts on society, including economic disruption, school closures, and increased stress and anxiety. It has also highlighted disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, with marginalized communities disproportionately affected by the SARS-CoV-2. The symptoms of COVID-19 range from mild to severe. There is presently no effective cure. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made in developing COVID-19 vaccine for different therapeutic targets. For instance, scientists developed multifold vaccine candidates shortly after the COVID-19 outbreak after Pfizer and AstraZeneca discovered the initial COVID-19 vaccines. These vaccines reduce disease spread, severity, and mortality. The addition of rapid diagnostics to microscopy for COVID-19 diagnosis has proven crucial. Our review provides a thorough overview of the historical development of COVID-19 and molecular and biochemical characterization of the SARS-CoV-2. We highlight the potential contributions from insect and plant sources as anti-SARS-CoV-2 and present directions for future research.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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