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Grazoprevir for COVID-19

Grazoprevir has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Masoudi-Sobhanzadeh et al., Structure-based drug repurposing against COVID-19 and emerging infectious diseases: methods, resources and discoveries, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbab113
AbstractTo attain promising pharmacotherapies, researchers have applied drug repurposing (DR) techniques to discover the candidate medicines to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Although many DR approaches have been introduced for treating different diseases, only structure-based DR (SBDR) methods can be employed as the first therapeutic option against the COVID-19 pandemic because they rely on the rudimentary information about the diseases such as the sequence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 genome. Hence, to try out new treatments for the disease, the first attempts have been made based on the SBDR methods which seem to be among the proper choices for discovering the potential medications against the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Given the importance of SBDR approaches, in the present review, well-known SBDR methods are summarized, and their merits are investigated. Then, the databases and software applications, utilized for repurposing the drugs against COVID-19, are introduced. Besides, the identified drugs are categorized based on their targets. Finally, a comparison is made between the SBDR approaches and other DR methods, and some possible future directions are proposed.
Sharun et al., A comprehensive review on pharmacologic agents, immunotherapies and supportive therapeutics for COVID-19, Narra J, doi:10.52225/narra.v2i3.92
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected many countries throughout the world. As urgency is a necessity, most efforts have focused on identifying small molecule drugs that can be repurposed for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Although several drug candidates have been identified using in silico method and in vitro studies, most of these drugs require the support of in vivo data before they can be considered for clinical trials. Several drugs are considered promising therapeutic agents for COVID-19. In addition to the direct-acting antiviral drugs, supportive therapies including traditional Chinese medicine, immunotherapies, immunomodulators, and nutritional therapy could contribute a major role in treating COVID-19 patients. Some of these drugs have already been included in the treatment guidelines, recommendations, and standard operating procedures. In this article, we comprehensively review the approved and potential therapeutic drugs, immune cells-based therapies, immunomodulatory agents/drugs, herbs and plant metabolites, nutritional and dietary for COVID-19.
Khalifa et al., After the Hurricane: Anti-COVID-19 Drugs Development, Molecular Mechanisms of Action and Future Perspectives, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms25020739
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new coronavirus in the Coronaviridae family. The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has undoubtedly been the largest crisis of the twenty-first century, resulting in over 6.8 million deaths and 686 million confirmed cases, creating a global public health issue. Hundreds of notable articles have been published since the onset of this pandemic to justify the cause of viral spread, viable preventive measures, and future therapeutic approaches. As a result, this review was developed to provide a summary of the current anti-COVID-19 drugs, as well as their timeline, molecular mode of action, and efficacy. It also sheds light on potential future treatment options. Several medications, notably hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, were initially claimed to be effective in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 but eventually demonstrated inadequate activity, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) withdrew hydroxychloroquine. Clinical trials and investigations, on the other hand, have demonstrated the efficacy of remdesivir, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies, 6-Thioguanine, hepatitis C protease inhibitors, and molnupiravir. Other therapeutics, including inhaled medicines, flavonoids, and aptamers, could pave the way for the creation of novel anti-COVID-19 therapies. As future pandemics are unavoidable, this article urges immediate action and extensive research efforts to develop potent specialized anti-COVID-19 medications.
Yevsieieva et al., Main and papain-like proteases as prospective targets for pharmacological treatment of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, RSC Advances, doi:10.1039/d3ra06479d
The review outlines coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 morphology, life cycle, and essential proteins, focusing on a design strategy for dual-acting inhibitors for PLpro and Mpro proteases.
Ruan et al., Virtual high-throughput screening: Potential inhibitors targeting aminopeptidase N (CD13) and PIKfyve for SARS-CoV-2, Open Life Sciences, doi:10.1515/biol-2022-0637
Abstract Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus nearly 3 years ago, the world’s public health has been under constant threat. At the same time, people’s travel and social interaction have also been greatly affected. The study focused on the potential host targets of SARS-CoV-2, CD13, and PIKfyve, which may be involved in viral infection and the viral/cell membrane fusion stage of SARS-CoV-2 in humans. In this study, electronic virtual high-throughput screening for CD13 and PIKfyve was conducted using Food and Drug Administration-approved compounds in ZINC database. The results showed that dihydroergotamine, Saquinavir, Olysio, Raltegravir, and Ecteinascidin had inhibitory effects on CD13. Dihydroergotamine, Sitagliptin, Olysio, Grazoprevir, and Saquinavir could inhibit PIKfyve. After 50 ns of molecular dynamics simulation, seven compounds showed stability at the active site of the target protein. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces were formed with target proteins. At the same time, the seven compounds showed good binding free energy after binding to the target proteins, providing potential drug candidates for the treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 variants.
Islam et al., Molecular-evaluated and explainable drug repurposing for COVID-19 using ensemble knowledge graph embedding, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-30095-z
AbstractThe search for an effective drug is still urgent for COVID-19 as no drug with proven clinical efficacy is available. Finding the new purpose of an approved or investigational drug, known as drug repurposing, has become increasingly popular in recent years. We propose here a new drug repurposing approach for COVID-19, based on knowledge graph (KG) embeddings. Our approach learns “ensemble embeddings” of entities and relations in a COVID-19 centric KG, in order to get a better latent representation of the graph elements. Ensemble KG-embeddings are subsequently used in a deep neural network trained for discovering potential drugs for COVID-19. Compared to related works, we retrieve more in-trial drugs among our top-ranked predictions, thus giving greater confidence in our prediction for out-of-trial drugs. For the first time to our knowledge, molecular docking is then used to evaluate the predictions obtained from drug repurposing using KG embedding. We show that Fosinopril is a potential ligand for the SARS-CoV-2 nsp13 target. We also provide explanations of our predictions thanks to rules extracted from the KG and instanciated by KG-derived explanatory paths. Molecular evaluation and explanatory paths bring reliability to our results and constitute new complementary and reusable methods for assessing KG-based drug repurposing.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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