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GC376 for COVID-19

GC376 has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Paciaroni et al., Stabilization of the Dimeric State of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease by GC376 and Nirmatrelvir, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms24076062
The main protease (Mpro or 3CLpro) is an enzyme that is evolutionarily conserved among different genera of coronaviruses. As it is essential for processing and maturing viral polyproteins, Mpro has been identified as a promising target for the development of broad-spectrum drugs against coronaviruses. Like SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the mature and active form of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro is a dimer composed of identical subunits, each with a single active site. Individual monomers, however, have very low or no catalytic activity. As such, inhibition of Mpro can be achieved by molecules that target the substrate binding pocket to block catalytic activity or target the dimerization process. In this study, we investigated GC376, a transition-state analog inhibitor of the main protease of feline infectious peritonitis coronavirus, and Nirmatrelvir (NMV), an oral, bioavailable SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor with pan-human coronavirus antiviral activity. Our results show that both GC376 and NMV are capable of strongly binding to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and altering the monomer-dimer equilibrium by stabilizing the dimeric state. This behavior is proposed to be related to a structured hydrogen-bond network established at the Mpro active site, where hydrogen bonds between Ser1’ and Glu166/Phe140 are formed in addition to those achieved by the latter residues with GC376 or NMV.
Sharun et al., A comprehensive review on pharmacologic agents, immunotherapies and supportive therapeutics for COVID-19, Narra J, doi:10.52225/narra.v2i3.92
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected many countries throughout the world. As urgency is a necessity, most efforts have focused on identifying small molecule drugs that can be repurposed for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Although several drug candidates have been identified using in silico method and in vitro studies, most of these drugs require the support of in vivo data before they can be considered for clinical trials. Several drugs are considered promising therapeutic agents for COVID-19. In addition to the direct-acting antiviral drugs, supportive therapies including traditional Chinese medicine, immunotherapies, immunomodulators, and nutritional therapy could contribute a major role in treating COVID-19 patients. Some of these drugs have already been included in the treatment guidelines, recommendations, and standard operating procedures. In this article, we comprehensively review the approved and potential therapeutic drugs, immune cells-based therapies, immunomodulatory agents/drugs, herbs and plant metabolites, nutritional and dietary for COVID-19.
Yarovaya et al., The Potential of Usnic-Acid-Based Thiazolo-Thiophenes as Inhibitors of the Main Protease of SARS-CoV-2 Viruses, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v16020215
Although the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 viruses is officially over, the search for new effective agents with activity against a wide range of coronaviruses is still an important task for medical chemists and virologists. We synthesized a series of thiazolo-thiophenes based on (+)- and (−)-usnic acid and studied their ability to inhibit the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Substances containing unsubstituted thiophene groups or methyl- or bromo-substituted thiophene moieties showed moderate activity. Derivatives containing nitro substituents in the thiophene heterocycle—just as pure (+)- and (−)-usnic acids—showed no anti-3CLpro activity. Kinetic parameters of the most active compound, (+)-3e, were investigated, and molecular modeling of the possible interaction of the new thiazolo-thiophenes with the active site of the main protease was carried out. We evaluated the binding energies of the ligand and protein in a ligand–protein complex. Active compound (+)-3e was found to bind with minimum free energy; the binding of inactive compound (+)-3g is characterized by higher values of minimum free energy; the positioning of pure (+)-usnic acid proved to be unstable and is accompanied by the formation of intermolecular contacts with many amino acids of the catalytic binding site. Thus, the molecular dynamics results were consistent with the experimental data. In an in vitro antiviral assay against six strains (Wuhan, Delta, and four Omicron sublineages) of SARS-CoV-2, (+)-3e demonstrated pronounced antiviral activity against all the strains.
Biering et al., Screening a library of FDA-approved and bioactive compounds for antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.12.30.424862
AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has emerged as a major global health threat. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 80 million cases and 1.7 million deaths to date while the number of cases continues to rise. With limited therapeutic options, the identification of safe and effective therapeutics is urgently needed. The repurposing of known clinical compounds holds the potential for rapid identification of drugs effective against SARS-CoV-2. Here we utilized a library of FDA-approved and well-studied preclinical and clinical compounds to screen for antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 in human pulmonary epithelial cells. We identified 13 compounds that exhibit potent antiviral activity across multiple orthogonal assays. Hits include known antivirals, compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, and compounds targeting host pathways such as kinases and proteases critical for SARS-CoV-2 replication. We identified seven compounds not previously reported to have activity against SARS-CoV-2, including B02, a human RAD51 inhibitor. We further demonstrated that B02 exhibits synergy with remdesivir, the only antiviral approved by the FDA to treat COVID-19, highlighting the potential for combination therapy. Taken together, our comparative compound screening strategy highlights the potential of drug repurposing screens to identify novel starting points for development of effective antiviral mono- or combination therapies to treat COVID-19.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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