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Nigella Sativa

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Epicatechin for COVID-19

Epicatechin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Objective: This study aims to elucidate the main compounds and mechanisms of action of Empon-empon (EE), a traditional Indonesian herb used for treating COVID-19 and atherosclerosis, utilizing an integrated network pharmacology and molecular docking approach. Methods: Active compounds in EE were obtained through the KNApSAcK, screening active compounds using parameters: oral bioavailability (OB) ≥ 30% and drug-likeness (DL) ≥ 0.18. Compound-related target genes were collected from GeneCard, ChemBL, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP). Disease targets were obtained from the GeneCard database. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was built using STRING and visualized using Cytoscape. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis using ShinyGO. Molecular docking analysis using Autodock Vina in PyRx. Results: We identified 18 main compounds in EE. PPI analysis obtained 5 central EE targets involved in treating COVID-19 and atherosclerosis, namely E1A Binding Protein P300 (EP300), Heat Shock Protein 90 Alpha Family Class A Member 1 (HSP90AA1), SRC Proto-Oncogene (SRC), Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1), and RELA Proto-Oncogene (RELA). GO and KEGG analysis illustrated EE's pharmacological effects through pathways in cancer, lipid and atherosclerosis, and PI3K-Akt signaling, including Coronavirus disease. Catechin and quercetin exhibited the strongest binding affinity to EP300; licarin B and delphinidin to HSP90AA1; epicatechin and delphinidin to SRC; galangin and ellagic acid to ESR1; and guaiacin and licarin B to RELA. Conclusion: This research provides a strong foundation regarding the main compound and mechanism action of EE in treating atherosclerosis and COVID-19, suggesting potential as a novel therapeutic agent.
Patil et al., Targeting multiple SARS-CoV-2 domains by Indian medicinal plants – A Drug repurposing study using molecular docking, ADME-Tox analysis, Research Square, doi:10.21203/
Abstract The rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and its capability to spread in humans has brought about the development of new approaches for treatment against COVID-19. Drugs and vaccines available currently either target the virus ectodomain or endodomain. Thus, repurposing the use of natural products that target more than one part of the virus is the fastest option available for treatment. Plants are a repository of important constituents with proven significant efficacy against many human viruses. The present study focused on employing computational approaches for screening phytochemicals from 4 Indian medicinal plants, by targeting more than one part of SARS-CoV-2 for the identification of natural antiviral therapeutics to determine their feasibility as potential inhibitors of target viral proteins. Here, we used a multi-target, ligand virtual screening study on 9 target proteins important in SARS-CoV-2 lifecycle, namely Spike glycoprotein, Nucleocapsid phosphatase, Spike protein ACE-2, Non-structural protein 10 and 12, RdRp, Envelope protein, Main protease/3CL protease, and Papain like proteas. Out of the 58 plant phytochemicals screened, Z-5-methyl-6- heneicosen-11- one from Piper nigrum, Arjunetin from Terminalia arjuna, Rutin from Azadirachta indica and Makisterone A from Tinospora cordifolia exhibited highest binding affinity with 9 viral targets. In addition, ADMET analysis indicated Ursodeoxycholic acid, Ellagic Acid, Epicatechin and Isocolumbin, Ecdysterone, Columbin from Piper nigrum, Terminalia arjuna, Azadirachta indica, and Tinospora cordifolia have good binding energetics with the target viral proteins. The research thus enlightens the suitable pharmacological properties and the anti-viral activity of potential medicinal plant molecules for human administration using extensive in-silico techniques.
Abarova et al., Emerging Therapeutic Potential of Polyphenols from Geranium sanguineum L. in Viral Infections, Including SARS-CoV-2, Biomolecules, doi:10.3390/biom14010130
The existing literature supports the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral capacities of the polyphenol extracts derived from Geranium sanguineum L. These extracts exhibit potential in hindering viral replication by inhibiting enzymes like DNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase. The antiviral properties of G. sanguineum L. seem to complement its immunomodulatory effects, contributing to infection resolution. While preclinical studies on G. sanguineum L. suggest its potential effectiveness against COVID-19, there is still a lack of clinical evidence. Therefore, the polyphenols extracted from this herb warrant further investigation as a potential alternative for preventing and treating COVID-19 infections.
Akinwumi et al., Evaluation of therapeutic potentials of some bioactive compounds in selected African plants targeting main protease (Mpro) in SARS-CoV-2: a molecular docking study, Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, doi:10.1186/s43042-023-00456-4
Abstract Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease brought on by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a global treat in early 2020. Despite worldwide research proving different medications used to treat COVID-19, the infection still affects the human race; we need to continue researching the virus to protect humanity and reduce the complications that some medications might cause. This study focuses on finding another promising therapeutic compound against SARS-CoV-2. Twenty-four (24) bioactive compounds were selected from the following African plants' Adansonia digitata L, Aframomum melegueta K. Schum, Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L, and Boswellia dalzielii, and Remdesivir was used as the control medication. The PubChem web server acquired the 3D structures of bioactive compounds in the plant and the control medication. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) crystal structure was obtained using the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Using the SwissADME web server, the bioactive compounds' drug-likeness was assessed, and AutoDock was employed for the molecular docking with the Mpro. The Proteins Plus and Protein–Ligand Interaction Profiler web servers were used to analyse the docked complexes. Furthermore, the admetSAR website was utilized to predict the ligands' absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) properties. Results Based on the drug-likeness screening, Rutin violated more than one of the Lipinski rules of five, while Remdesivir violated two. Molecular docking analysis results indicated that Catechin, Epicatechin, Vitexin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Gamma-Sitosterol, and Kaur-16-ene exhibited a stronger binding affinity with Mpro, with binding scores of − 7.1, − 7.1, − 8.0, − 7.3, − 7.2, − 6.8, and − 6.5 kcal/mol, respectively, compared to Remdesivir's binding score of − 6.3 kcal/mol. Consequently, binding scores of bioactive compounds suggest their potential biological activity against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Additionally, these bioactive compounds exhibited favourable ADMET properties. Vitexin also has a plasma protein binding below 90%, a promising medication distribution feature. Conclusions This study shows that Catechin, Epicatechin, Vitexin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Gamma-Sitosterol, and Kaur-16-ene have better binding affinities with Mpro than Remdesivir. Molecular dynamics simulation in vitro and in vivo investigation is required to support this study.
Srivastava et al., A Brief Review on Medicinal Plants-At-Arms against COVID-19, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1155/2023/7598307
COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 has impacted human livelihood globally. Strenuous efforts have been employed for its control and prevention; however, with recent reports on mutated strains with much higher infectivity, transmissibility, and ability to evade immunity developed from previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, prevention alternatives must be prepared beforehand in case. We have perused over 128 recent works (found on Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect as of February 2023) on medicinal plants and their compounds for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and eventually reviewed 102 of them. The clinical application and the curative effect were reported high in China and in India. Accordingly, this review highlights the unprecedented opportunities offered by medicinal plants and their compounds, candidates as the therapeutic agent, against COVID-19 by acting as viral protein inhibitors and immunomodulator in (32 clinical trials and hundreds of in silico experiments) conjecture with modern science. Moreover, the associated foreseeable challenges for their viral outbreak management were discussed in comparison to synthetic drugs.
Giordano et al., Food Plant Secondary Metabolites Antiviral Activity and Their Possible Roles in SARS-CoV-2 Treatment: An Overview, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062470
Natural products and plant extracts exhibit many biological activities, including that related to the defense mechanisms against parasites. Many studies have investigated the biological functions of secondary metabolites and reported evidence of antiviral activities. The pandemic emergencies have further increased the interest in finding antiviral agents, and efforts are oriented to investigate possible activities of secondary plant metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we performed a comprehensive analysis of studies through in silico and in vitro investigations, also including in vivo applications and clinical trials, to evaluate the state of knowledge on the antiviral activities of secondary metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a particular focus on natural compounds present in food plants. Although some of the food plant secondary metabolites seem to be useful in the prevention and as a possible therapeutic management against SARS-CoV-2, up to now, no molecules can be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, more research is needed.
Heleno et al., Plant Extracts and SARS-CoV-2: Research and Applications, Life, doi:10.3390/life13020386
The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has brought upon the world an unprecedented challenge. During its acute dissemination, a rush for vaccines started, making the scientific community come together and contribute to the development of efficient therapeutic agents and vaccines. Natural products have been used as sources of individual molecules and extracts capable of inhibiting/neutralizing several microorganisms, including viruses. Natural extracts have shown effective results against the coronavirus family, when first tested in the outbreak of SARS-CoV-1, back in 2002. In this review, the relationship between natural extracts and SARS-CoV is discussed, while also providing insight into misinformation regarding the use of plants as possible therapeutic agents. Studies with plant extracts on coronaviruses are presented, as well as the main inhibition assays and trends for the future regarding the yet unknown long-lasting effects post-infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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