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EGCG has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Frank et al., Evaluation of Novel Nasal Mucoadhesive Nanoformulations Containing Lipid-Soluble EGCG for Long COVID Treatment, Pharmaceutics, doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics16060791
Following recovery from the acute infection stage of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19), survivors can experience a wide range of persistent Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), also referred to as long COVID. According to the US National Research Action Plan on Long COVID 2022, up to 23.7 million Americans suffer from long COVID, and approximately one million workers may be out of the workforce each day due to these symptoms, leading to a USD 50 billion annual loss of salary. Neurological symptoms associated with long COVID result from persistent infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal neuroepithelial cells, leading to inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). As of today, there is no evidence that vaccines or medications can clear the persistent viral infection in olfactory mucosa. Recently published clinical data demonstrate that only 5% of long COVID anosmia patients have fully recovered during the past 2 years, and 10.4% of COVID patients are still symptomatic 18 months post-infection. Our group demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate-monopalmitate (EC16m) nanoformulations possess strong antiviral activity against human coronavirus, suggesting that this green-tea-derived compound in nanoparticle formulations could be developed as an intranasally delivered new drug targeting the persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in the CNS, leading to restoration of neurologic functions. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the mucociliary safety of the EC16m nasal nanoformulations and their efficacy against human coronavirus. Methods: Nanoparticle size and Zeta potential were measured using the ZetaView Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis system; mucociliary safety was determined using the MucilAir human nasal model; contact antiviral activity and post-infection inhibition against the OC43 viral strain were assessed by the TCID50 assay for cytopathic effect on MRC-5 cells. Results: The saline-based EC16 mucoadhesive nanoformulations containing 0.005 to 0.02% w/v EC16m have no significant difference compared to saline (0.9% NaCl) with respect to tissue integrity, cytotoxicity, and cilia beat frequency. A 5 min contact resulted in 99.9% inactivation of β-coronavirus OC43. OC43 viral replication was inhibited by >90% after infected MRC-5 cells were treated with the formulations. Conclusion: The saline-based novel EC16m mucoadhesive nasal nanoformulations rapidly inactivated human coronavirus with mucociliary safety properties comparable to saline, a solution widely used for nasal applications.
Lei et al., Small molecules in the treatment of COVID-19, Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, doi:10.1038/s41392-022-01249-8
AbstractThe outbreak of COVID-19 has become a global crisis, and brought severe disruptions to societies and economies. Until now, effective therapeutics against COVID-19 are in high demand. Along with our improved understanding of the structure, function, and pathogenic process of SARS-CoV-2, many small molecules with potential anti-COVID-19 effects have been developed. So far, several antiviral strategies were explored. Besides directly inhibition of viral proteins such as RdRp and Mpro, interference of host enzymes including ACE2 and proteases, and blocking relevant immunoregulatory pathways represented by JAK/STAT, BTK, NF-κB, and NLRP3 pathways, are regarded feasible in drug development. The development of small molecules to treat COVID-19 has been achieved by several strategies, including computer-aided lead compound design and screening, natural product discovery, drug repurposing, and combination therapy. Several small molecules representative by remdesivir and paxlovid have been proved or authorized emergency use in many countries. And many candidates have entered clinical-trial stage. Nevertheless, due to the epidemiological features and variability issues of SARS-CoV-2, it is necessary to continue exploring novel strategies against COVID-19. This review discusses the current findings in the development of small molecules for COVID-19 treatment. Moreover, their detailed mechanism of action, chemical structures, and preclinical and clinical efficacies are discussed.
Szabó et al., Natural products as a source of Coronavirus entry inhibitors, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2024.1353971
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant and lasting impact on the world. Four years on, despite the existence of effective vaccines, the continuous emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants remains a challenge for long-term immunity. Additionally, there remain few purpose-built antivirals to protect individuals at risk of severe disease in the event of future coronavirus outbreaks. A promising mechanism of action for novel coronavirus antivirals is the inhibition of viral entry. To facilitate entry, the coronavirus spike glycoprotein interacts with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on respiratory epithelial cells. Blocking this interaction and consequently viral replication may be an effective strategy for treating infection, however further research is needed to better characterize candidate molecules with antiviral activity before progressing to animal studies and clinical trials. In general, antiviral drugs are developed from purely synthetic compounds or synthetic derivatives of natural products such as plant secondary metabolites. While the former is often favored due to the higher specificity afforded by rational drug design, natural products offer several unique advantages that make them worthy of further study including diverse bioactivity and the ability to work synergistically with other drugs. Accordingly, there has recently been a renewed interest in natural product-derived antivirals in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review provides a summary of recent research into coronavirus entry inhibitors, with a focus on natural compounds derived from plants, honey, and marine sponges.
Day et al., Multidisciplinary Approaches Identify Compounds that Bind to Human ACE2 or SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein as Candidates to Block SARS-CoV-2–ACE2 Receptor Interactions, mBio, doi:10.1128/mBio.03681-20
SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused more than 60 million cases worldwide with almost 1.5 million deaths as of November 2020. Repurposing existing drugs is the most rapid path to clinical intervention for emerging diseases.
Cesar-Silva et al., Lipid compartments and lipid metabolism as therapeutic targets against coronavirus, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1268854
Lipids perform a series of cellular functions, establishing cell and organelles’ boundaries, organizing signaling platforms, and creating compartments where specific reactions occur. Moreover, lipids store energy and act as secondary messengers whose distribution is tightly regulated. Disruption of lipid metabolism is associated with many diseases, including those caused by viruses. In this scenario, lipids can favor virus replication and are not solely used as pathogens’ energy source. In contrast, cells can counteract viruses using lipids as weapons. In this review, we discuss the available data on how coronaviruses profit from cellular lipid compartments and why targeting lipid metabolism may be a powerful strategy to fight these cellular parasites. We also provide a formidable collection of data on the pharmacological approaches targeting lipid metabolism to impair and treat coronavirus infection.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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