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Echinatin for COVID-19

Echinatin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Wang et al., Stand Up to Stand Out: Natural Dietary Polyphenols Curcumin, Resveratrol, and Gossypol as Potential Therapeutic Candidates against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15183885
The COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated collaborative drug discovery efforts in academia and the industry with the aim of developing therapies and vaccines that target SARS-CoV-2. Several novel therapies have been approved and deployed in the last three years. However, their clinical application has revealed limitations due to the rapid emergence of viral variants. Therefore, the development of next-generation SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic agents with a high potency and safety profile remains a high priority for global health. Increasing awareness of the “back to nature” approach for improving human health has prompted renewed interest in natural products, especially dietary polyphenols, as an additional therapeutic strategy to treat SARS-CoV-2 patients, owing to its good safety profile, exceptional nutritional value, health-promoting benefits (including potential antiviral properties), affordability, and availability. Herein, we describe the biological properties and pleiotropic molecular mechanisms of dietary polyphenols curcumin, resveratrol, and gossypol as inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on the advantages and disadvantages of dietary polyphenols and to obtain maximal benefits, several strategies such as nanotechnology (e.g., curcumin-incorporated nanofibrous membranes with antibacterial-antiviral ability), lead optimization (e.g., a methylated analog of curcumin), combination therapies (e.g., a specific combination of plant extracts and micronutrients), and broad-spectrum activities (e.g., gossypol broadly inhibits coronaviruses) have also been emphasized as positive factors in the facilitation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug development to support effective long-term pandemic management and control.
Xu et al., Bioactive compounds from Huashi Baidu decoction possess both antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects against COVID-19, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.2301775120
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing global health concern, and effective antiviral reagents are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine theory-driven natural drug research and development (TCMT-NDRD) is a feasible method to address this issue as the traditional Chinese medicine formulae have been shown effective in the treatment of COVID-19. Huashi Baidu decoction (Q-14) is a clinically approved formula for COVID-19 therapy with antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, an integrative pharmacological strategy was applied to identify the antiviral and anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds from Q-14. Overall, a total of 343 chemical compounds were initially characterized, and 60 prototype compounds in Q-14 were subsequently traced in plasma using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Among the 60 compounds, six compounds (magnolol, glycyrrhisoflavone, licoisoflavone A, emodin, echinatin, and quercetin) were identified showing a dose-dependent inhibition effect on the SARS-CoV-2 infection, including two inhibitors (echinatin and quercetin) of the main protease (M pro ), as well as two inhibitors (glycyrrhisoflavone and licoisoflavone A) of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Meanwhile, three anti-inflammatory components, including licochalcone B, echinatin, and glycyrrhisoflavone, were identified in a SARS-CoV-2-infected inflammatory cell model. In addition, glycyrrhisoflavone and licoisoflavone A also displayed strong inhibitory activities against cAMP-specific 3′,5′-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4). Crystal structures of PDE4 in complex with glycyrrhisoflavone or licoisoflavone A were determined at resolutions of 1.54 Å and 1.65 Å, respectively, and both compounds bind in the active site of PDE4 with similar interactions. These findings will greatly stimulate the study of TCMT-NDRD against COVID-19.
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