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Dictyosphaeric acid A for COVID-19

Dictyosphaeric acid A has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Okechukwu et al., Marine-Derived Bioactive Metabolites as a Potential Therapeutic Intervention in Managing Viral Diseases: Insights from the SARS-CoV-2 In Silico and Pre-Clinical Studies, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph17030328
Worldwide urbanization and subsequent migration have accelerated the emergence and spread of diverse novel human diseases. Among them, diseases caused by viruses could result in epidemics, typified by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which hit the globe towards the end of December 2019. The global battle against SARS-CoV-2 has reignited interest in finding alternative treatments for viral infections. The marine world offers a large repository of diverse and unique bioactive compounds. Over the years, many antiviral compounds from marine organisms have been isolated and tested in vitro and in vivo. However, given the increasing need for alternative treatment, in silico analysis appears to provide a time- and cost-effective approach to identifying the potential antiviral compounds from the vast pool of natural metabolites isolated from marine organisms. In this perspective review, we discuss marine-derived bioactive metabolites as potential therapeutics for all known disease-causing viruses including the SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate the efficacy of marine-derived bioactive metabolites in the context of various antiviral activities and their in silico, in vitro, and in vivo capacities.
Rahman et al., Virtual Screening of Natural Products against Type II Transmembrane Serine Protease (TMPRSS2), the Priming Agent of Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules25102271
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused about 2 million infections and is responsible for more than 100,000 deaths worldwide. To date, there is no specific drug registered to combat the disease it causes, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the current study, we used an in silico approach to screen natural compounds to find potent inhibitors of the host enzyme transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). This enzyme facilitates viral particle entry into host cells, and its inhibition blocks virus fusion with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This, in turn, restricts SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. A three-dimensional structure of TMPRSS2 was built using SWISS-MODEL and validated by RAMPAGE. The natural compounds library Natural Product Activity and Species Source (NPASS), containing 30,927 compounds, was screened against the target protein. Two techniques were used in the Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) for this purpose, i.e., a ligand-based pharmacophore approach and a molecular docking-based screening. In total, 2140 compounds with pharmacophoric features were retained using the first approach. Using the second approach, 85 compounds with molecular docking comparable to or greater than that of the standard inhibitor (camostat mesylate) were identified. The top 12 compounds with the most favorable structural features were studied for physicochemical and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) properties. The low-molecular-weight compound NPC306344 showed significant interaction with the active site residues of TMPRSS2, with a binding energy score of −14.69. Further in vitro and in vivo validation is needed to study and develop an anti-COVID-19 drug based on the structures of the most promising compounds identified in this study.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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