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Cysteamine for COVID-19

Cysteamine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Thoene et al., In Vitro Activity of Cysteamine Against SARS-CoV-2 Variants, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.10.02.462862
Global COVID-19 pandemic is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Continuous emergence of new variants and their rapid spread are jeopardizing vaccine countermeasures to a significant extent. While currently available vaccines are effective at preventing illness associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, these have been shown to be less effective at preventing breakthrough infection and transmission from a vaccinated individual to others. Here we demonstrate broad antiviral activity of cysteamine HCl in vitro against major emergent infectious variants of SARS-CoV-2 in a highly permissible Vero cell line. Cysteamine HCl inhibited infection of wild type, alpha, beta, gamma, delta, lambda, and omicron variants effectively. Cysteamine is a very well-tolerated US FDA-approved drug used chronically as a topical ophthalmic solution to treat ocular cystinosis in patients who receive it hourly or QID lifelong at concentrations 6 to 10 times higher than that required to completely inhibit SARS CoV-2 in tissue culture. Application of cysteamine as a topical nasal treatment can potentially1) mitigate existing infection 2) prevent infection in exposed individuals, and 3) limit the contagion in vulnerable populations.
Alonzi et al., Cysteamine exerts in vitro antiviral activity against the SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants, Cell Death Discovery, doi:10.1038/s41420-022-01080-8
AbstractThe novel SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) represent a considerable global alarm because their mutations are known to affect transmissibility and cause immune escape. While preventing severe disease and deaths, the available vaccines do not avoid infection; therefore, COVID-19 disease management still requires effective therapies. We have recently reported that the aminothiol cysteamine, a drug already applied to humans, exerts direct antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 and has in vitro immunomodulatory effect. To evaluate whether this compound exerts antiviral effects also against SARS-CoV-2 variants, we performed different infected cell-based assays using Wild type, Delta, or Omicron VOC. We found that cysteamine significantly reduces the cytopathic effect induced by SARS-CoV-2 Wild type strain and Delta variant in Vero E6 cells. On the other hand, cysteamine had no effects on the survival of cells infected with the Omicron variant, due to the lack of cytotoxicity on Vero E6 cells, at least when infected at MOI = 0.001 for 72 h. Moreover, cysteamine significantly reduced the production of Wild type, Delta, and Omicron variants as measured by the virus released in the culture media (Vero E6 and Calu-3 cells) and by transmission electron microscopy analysis (Vero E6 cells). Notably, cysteamine is more effective in inhibiting the Omicron rather than Delta or Wild type viruses, with an 80% inhibition of Omicron production compared to 40% of Wild type and Delta variant. Overall, our findings demonstrate that cysteamine exerts direct antiviral actions against SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants, in addition to the Wild type virus. Our data further demonstrate that cysteamine is a good candidate as repurposing drug for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection for the present and, likely, the future VOC and, therefore, it would be important to investigate its clinical relevance in randomized clinical trials.
Masoudi-Sobhanzadeh et al., Structure-based drug repurposing against COVID-19 and emerging infectious diseases: methods, resources and discoveries, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbab113
AbstractTo attain promising pharmacotherapies, researchers have applied drug repurposing (DR) techniques to discover the candidate medicines to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Although many DR approaches have been introduced for treating different diseases, only structure-based DR (SBDR) methods can be employed as the first therapeutic option against the COVID-19 pandemic because they rely on the rudimentary information about the diseases such as the sequence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 genome. Hence, to try out new treatments for the disease, the first attempts have been made based on the SBDR methods which seem to be among the proper choices for discovering the potential medications against the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Given the importance of SBDR approaches, in the present review, well-known SBDR methods are summarized, and their merits are investigated. Then, the databases and software applications, utilized for repurposing the drugs against COVID-19, are introduced. Besides, the identified drugs are categorized based on their targets. Finally, a comparison is made between the SBDR approaches and other DR methods, and some possible future directions are proposed.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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