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Cisplatin for COVID-19

Cisplatin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Agamah et al., Network-based multi-omics-disease-drug associations reveal drug repurposing candidates for COVID-19 disease phases, ScienceOpen, doi:10.58647/DRUGARXIV.PR000010.v1
Background:The development and roll-out of vaccines, and the use of various drugs have contributed to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, challenges such as the inequitable distribution of vaccines, the influence of emerging viral lineages and immune evasive variants on vaccine efficacy, and the inadequate immune defense in subgroups of the population continue to motivate the development of new drugs to combat the disease. Aim:In this study, we sought to identify, prioritize, and characterize drug repurposing candidates appropriate for treating mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 using a network-based integrative approach that systematically integrates drug-related data and multi-omics datasets. Methods: We leveraged drug data, and multi-omics data, and used a random walk restart algorithm to explore an integrated knowledge graph comprised of three sub-graphs: (i) a COVID-19 knowledge graph, (ii) a drug repurposing knowledge graph, and (iii) a COVID-19 disease-state specific omics graph. Results:We prioritized twenty FDA-approved agents as potential candidate drugs for mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 disease phases. Specifically, drugs that could stimulate immune cell recruitment and activation including histamine, curcumin, and paclitaxel have potential utility in mild disease states to mitigate disease progression. Drugs like omacetaxine, crizotinib, and vorinostat that exhibit antiviral properties and have the potential to inhibit viral replication can be considered for mild to moderate COVID-19 disease states. Also, given the association between antioxidant deficiency and high inflammatory factors that trigger cytokine storms, antioxidants like glutathione can be considered for moderate disease states. Drugs that exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects like (i) anti-inflammatory drugs (sarilumab and tocilizumab), (ii) corticosteroids (dexamethasone and hydrocortisone), and (iii) immunosuppressives (sirolimus and cyclosporine) are potential candidates for moderate to severe disease states that trigger a hyperinflammatory cascade of COVID-19. Conclusion:Our study demonstrates that the multi-omics data-driven integrative analysis within the drug data enables prioritizing drug candidates for COVID-19 disease phases, offering a comprehensive basis for therapeutic strategies that can be brought to market quickly given their established safety profiles. Importantly, the multi-omics data-driven integrative analysis within the drug data approach implemented here can be used to prioritize drug repurposing candidates appropriate for other diseases.
Niarakis et al., Drug-target identification in COVID-19 disease mechanisms using computational systems biology approaches, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1282859
IntroductionThe COVID-19 Disease Map project is a large-scale community effort uniting 277 scientists from 130 Institutions around the globe. We use high-quality, mechanistic content describing SARS-CoV-2-host interactions and develop interoperable bioinformatic pipelines for novel target identification and drug repurposing. MethodsExtensive community work allowed an impressive step forward in building interfaces between Systems Biology tools and platforms. Our framework can link biomolecules from omics data analysis and computational modelling to dysregulated pathways in a cell-, tissue- or patient-specific manner. Drug repurposing using text mining and AI-assisted analysis identified potential drugs, chemicals and microRNAs that could target the identified key factors.ResultsResults revealed drugs already tested for anti-COVID-19 efficacy, providing a mechanistic context for their mode of action, and drugs already in clinical trials for treating other diseases, never tested against COVID-19. DiscussionThe key advance is that the proposed framework is versatile and expandable, offering a significant upgrade in the arsenal for virus-host interactions and other complex pathologies.
Sperry et al., Target-agnostic drug prediction integrated with medical record analysis uncovers differential associations of statins with increased survival in COVID-19 patients, PLOS Computational Biology, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1011050 (Table 2)
Drug repurposing requires distinguishing established drug class targets from novel molecule-specific mechanisms and rapidly derisking their therapeutic potential in a time-critical manner, particularly in a pandemic scenario. In response to the challenge to rapidly identify treatment options for COVID-19, several studies reported that statins, as a drug class, reduce mortality in these patients. However, it is unknown if different statins exhibit consistent function or may have varying therapeutic benefit. A Bayesian network tool was used to predict drugs that shift the host transcriptomic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection towards a healthy state. Drugs were predicted using 14 RNA-sequencing datasets from 72 autopsy tissues and 465 COVID-19 patient samples or from cultured human cells and organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2. Top drug predictions included statins, which were then assessed using electronic medical records containing over 4,000 COVID-19 patients on statins to determine mortality risk in patients prescribed specific statins versus untreated matched controls. The same drugs were tested in Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and human endothelial cells infected with a related OC43 coronavirus. Simvastatin was among the most highly predicted compounds (14/14 datasets) and five other statins, including atorvastatin, were predicted to be active in > 50% of analyses. Analysis of the clinical database revealed that reduced mortality risk was only observed in COVID-19 patients prescribed a subset of statins, including simvastatin and atorvastatin. In vitro testing of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells revealed simvastatin to be a potent direct inhibitor whereas most other statins were less effective. Simvastatin also inhibited OC43 infection and reduced cytokine production in endothelial cells. Statins may differ in their ability to sustain the lives of COVID-19 patients despite having a shared drug target and lipid-modifying mechanism of action. These findings highlight the value of target-agnostic drug prediction coupled with patient databases to identify and clinically evaluate non-obvious mechanisms and derisk and accelerate drug repurposing opportunities.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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