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Chlorogenic acid for COVID-19

Chlorogenic acid has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Amrutha Pulagam, Murthi Vidya Rani, Rajitha Galla, Umakanth Naik Vankadoth, Umamaheswari Amineni, -., Molecular Docking Study of Nutraceuticals from Medicinal Plants against COVID-19 by Targeting PLPRO and RdRp, Zenodo, doi:10.5281/Zenodo.10993336
The SARS-CoV-2 infection continues triggering substantial distress to people since 2019. Many research investigationsconcerning viral pathogenesis regarding the manner in which the virus infects and multiplies within the host have led toconverging conclusions. Numerous studies have additionally demonstrated a strong link between ageing, mildinflammation, metabolic disorders and SARS-CoV-2 illness. According to a modest collection of knowledge, nutraceuticals arecapable of avoiding viral invasion and can reduce inflammation. Consequently, in this current work, we report a moleculardocking analysis for nutraceuticals from diverse plants against SARS-CoV-2 cysteine proteases PLpro (PDB ID: 7CJM) andRNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, PDB ID: 6M71) which play major role in viral replication. The molecular dockingstudies showed that chicoric acid (7CJM : -8.617 Kcal/Mol, 6M71: -6.475) and rosemarinic acid (7CJM : -7.925 Kcal/Mol,6M71 : -8.323 Kcal/Mol) exhibited good docking scores with the selected targets, which were better when compared to that ofreference antiviral drugs Remdesivir and Favipiravir. The majority of the nutraceuticals assessed by Qikprop displayedbeneficial pharmacological characteristics for human administration.
Ramezani et al., Effect of herbal compounds on inhibition of coronavirus; A systematic review and meta-analysis, Authorea, Inc., doi:10.22541/au.170668000.04030360/v1
The outbreak of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) has been transferred exponentially. There are many articles that have found the inhibitory effect of plant extracts or plant compounds on the coronavirus family. In this study, we want to use systematic review and meta-analysis to answer the question of which herbal compound can be more effective against the coronavirus. The present study is based on the guidelines for conducting meta-analyzes. An extensive search was conducted in the electronic database, and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, articles were selected and data screening was performed. Quality control of articles was performed. Data analysis was carried out in STATA software. The results showed that alkaloid compounds had a good effect in controlling the coronavirus and reducing viral titer. Trypthantrin, Sambucus extract, S. cusia extract, Boceprevir and Indigole B, dioica agglutinin urtica had a good effect on reducing the virus titer but their selectivity index has not been reported and it is recommended to determine for these compounds. Also among the compounds that had the greatest effect on virus inhibition, including Saikosaponins B2, SaikosaponinsD, SaikosaponinsA and Phillyrin, had an acceptable selectivity index greater than 10. Andrographolide showed the highest selectivity index on SARS-COV2, while virus titration and virus inhibition were not reported. The small number of studies that used alkaloid compounds was one of the limitations and it is suggested to investigate the effect of more alkaloid compounds against the coronavirus for verifying its effect.
Liu et al., Plant‐derived compounds as potential leads for new drug development targeting COVID‐19, Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.8105
AbstractCOVID‐19, which was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, is a respiratory illness caused by a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). Although some patients infected with COVID‐19 can remain asymptomatic, most experience a range of symptoms that can be mild to severe. Common symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of taste or smell and muscle aches. In severe cases, complications can arise including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organ failure and even death, particularly in older adults or individuals with underlying health conditions. Treatments for COVID‐19 include remdesivir, which has been authorised for emergency use in some countries, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used to reduce inflammation in severe cases. Biological drugs including monoclonal antibodies, such as casirivimab and imdevimab, have also been authorised for emergency use in certain situations. While these treatments have improved the outcome for many patients, there is still an urgent need for new treatments. Medicinal plants have long served as a valuable source of new drug leads and may serve as a valuable resource in the development of COVID‐19 treatments due to their broad‐spectrum antiviral activity. To date, various medicinal plant extracts have been studied for their cellular and molecular interactions, with some demonstrating anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 activity in vitro. This review explores the evaluation and potential therapeutic applications of these plants against SARS‐CoV‐2. This review summarises the latest evidence on the activity of different plant extracts and their isolated bioactive compounds against SARS‐CoV‐2, with a focus on the application of plant‐derived compounds in animal models and in human studies.
Abarova et al., Emerging Therapeutic Potential of Polyphenols from Geranium sanguineum L. in Viral Infections, Including SARS-CoV-2, Biomolecules, doi:10.3390/biom14010130
The existing literature supports the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral capacities of the polyphenol extracts derived from Geranium sanguineum L. These extracts exhibit potential in hindering viral replication by inhibiting enzymes like DNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase. The antiviral properties of G. sanguineum L. seem to complement its immunomodulatory effects, contributing to infection resolution. While preclinical studies on G. sanguineum L. suggest its potential effectiveness against COVID-19, there is still a lack of clinical evidence. Therefore, the polyphenols extracted from this herb warrant further investigation as a potential alternative for preventing and treating COVID-19 infections.
Wu et al., Coffee as a dietary strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, Cell & Bioscience, doi:10.1186/s13578-023-01154-9
Abstract Background To date, most countries lifted the restriction requirement and coexisted with SARS-CoV-2. Thus, dietary behavior for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection becomes an interesting issue on a daily basis. Coffee consumption is connected with reduced COVID-19 risk and correlated to COVID-19 severity. However, the mechanisms of coffee for the reduction of COVID-19 risk are still unclear. Results Here, we identified that coffee can inhibit multiple variants of the SARS-CoV-2 infection by restraining the binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and reducing transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and cathepsin L (CTSL) activity. Then, we used the method of "Here" (HRMS-exploring-recombination-examining) and found that isochlorogenic acid A, B, and C of coffee ingredients showed their potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection (inhibitory efficiency 43–54%). In addition, decaffeinated coffee still preserves inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2. Finally, in a human trial of 64 subjects, we identified that coffee consumption (approximately 1–2 cups/day) is sufficient to inhibit infection of multiple variants of SARS-CoV-2 entry, suggesting coffee could be a dietary strategy to prevent SARS-CoV2 infection. Conclusions This study verified moderate coffee consumption, including decaffeination, can provide a new guideline for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2. Based on the results, we also suggest a coffee-drinking plan for people to prevent infection in the post-COVID-19 era.
Zhang et al., Discovery of the covalent SARS‐CoV‐2 Mpro inhibitors from antiviral herbs via integrating target‐based high‐throughput screening and chemoproteomic approaches, Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.29208
AbstractThe main proteases (Mpro) are highly conserved cysteine‐rich proteins that can be covalently modified by numerous natural and synthetic compounds. Herein, we constructed an integrative approach to efficiently discover covalent inhibitors of Mpro from complex herbal matrices. This work begins with biological screening of 60 clinically used antiviral herbal medicines, among which Lonicera japonica Flos (LJF) demonstrated the strongest anti‐Mpro effect (IC50 = 37.82 μg/mL). Mass spectrometry (MS)‐based chemical analysis and chemoproteomic profiling revealed that LJF extract contains at least 50 constituents, of which 22 exhibited the capability to covalently modify Mpro. We subsequently verified the anti‐Mpro effects of these covalent binders. Gallic acid and quercetin were found to potently inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Mpro in dose‐ and time‐ dependent manners, with the IC50 values below 10 µM. The inactivation kinetics, binding affinity and binding mode of gallic acid and quercetin were further characterized by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, surface plasmon resonance, and covalent docking simulations. Overall, this study established a practical approach for efficiently discovering the covalent inhibitors of Mpro from herbal medicines by integrating target‐based high‐throughput screening and MS‐based assays, which would greatly facilitate the discovery of key antiviral constituents from medicinal plants.
Shafiq et al., Exploration of phenolic acid derivatives as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease and receptor binding domain: potential candidates for anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapy, Frontiers in Chemistry, doi:10.3389/fchem.2023.1251529
Severe acute respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological virus of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) which has been a public health concern due to its high morbidity and high mortality. Hence, the search for drugs that incapacitate the virus via inhibition of vital proteins in its life cycle is ongoing due to the paucity of drugs in clinical use against the virus. Consequently, this study was aimed at evaluating the potentials of natural phenolics against the Main protease (Mpro) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) using molecular modeling techniques including molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To this end, thirty-five naturally occurring phenolics were identified and subjected to molecular docking simulation against the proteins. The results showed the compounds including rosmarinic acid, cynarine, and chlorogenic acid among many others possessed high binding affinities for both proteins as evident from their docking scores, with some possessing lower docking scores compared to the standard compound (Remdesivir). Further subjection of the hit compounds to drug-likeness, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity profiling revealed chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, and chicoric acid as the compounds with desirable profiles and toxicity properties, while the study of their electronic properties via density functional theory calculations revealed rosmarinic acid as the most reactive and least stable among the sets of lead compounds that were identified in the study. Molecular dynamics simulation of the complexes formed after docking revealed the stability of the complexes. Ultimately, further experimental procedures are needed to validate the findings of this study.
Rafiq et al., A Comprehensive Update of Various Attempts by Medicinal Chemists to Combat COVID-19 through Natural Products, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28124860
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a global panic because of its continual evolution and recurring spikes. This serious malignancy is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the outbreak, millions of people have been affected from December 2019 till now, which has led to a great surge in finding treatments. Despite trying to handle the pandemic with the repurposing of some drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ivermectin, etc., against COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues its out-of-control spread. There is a dire need to identify a new regimen of natural products to combat the deadly viral disease. This article deals with the literature reports to date of natural products showing inhibitory activity towards SARS-CoV-2 through different approaches, such as in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies. Natural compounds targeting the proteins of SARS-CoV-2—the main protease (Mpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), spike proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), endoribonuclease, exoribonuclease, helicase, nucleocapsid, methyltransferase, adeno diphosphate (ADP) phosphatase, other nonstructural proteins, and envelope proteins—were extracted mainly from plants, and some were isolated from bacteria, algae, fungi, and a few marine organisms.
AKBABA et al., Phytochemicals of Hibiscus sabdariffa with Therapeutic Potential against SARS-CoV-2: A Molecular Docking Study, Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology, doi:10.21597/jist.1187616
In this study, the possible interactions of 17 phytochemicals that were reported as the most abundant biomolecules of Hibiscus sabdariffa, including many organic acids as well as catechin and quercetin derivatives, with 3CLpro and PLpro proteases of SARS-CoV-2 have been investigated via molecular docking. Caffeoylshikimic acid/3CLpro showed the lowest binding energy (-7.72 kcal/mol) with seven H-bonds. The second-lowest binding energy was computed in the chlorogenic acid/3CLpro complex (-7.18 kcal/mol), which was found to form 6 H-bonds. Also, low binding energies of cianidanol (-7.10 kcal/mol), cryptochlorogenic acid (-6.67 kcal/mol), and kaempferol (-6.82 kcal/mol) were calculated to 3CLpro with several H-bond interactions. Nelfinavir (-10.16 kcal/mol) and remdesivir (-6.40 kcal/mol), which have been used against COVID-19, were obtained to have low binding energies to 3CLpro with 3 H-bond formations each. On the other hand, the nicotiflorin/PLpro complex, which had the lowest binding energy (-7.40 kcal/mol), was found to have only 1 H-bond interaction. The second-lowest binding energy was reported in chlorogenic acid/PLpro (-7.20 kcal/mol), which was found to possess four H-bonds. On the other hand, epigallocatechin gallate/PLpro, which was shown to have a -5.95 kcal/mol binding energy, was found to form 8 H-bond interactions. Furthermore, the quercetin pentosylhexoside/PLpro complex was monitored to have low binding energy (-6.54 kcal/mol) with 9 H-bonds, which stands as the highest number of H-bonds in all complexes. Therefore, several molecules of Hibiscus sabdariffa were found to have strong binding affinity to the main proteases of SARS-CoV-2. This study suggests many compounds, including caffeoylshikimic acid and nicotiflorin, to inhibit 3CLpro and PLpro activities. As a result, numerous chemicals derived from Hibiscus sabdariffa have the potential to be employed therapeutically against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Srivastava et al., A Brief Review on Medicinal Plants-At-Arms against COVID-19, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1155/2023/7598307
COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 has impacted human livelihood globally. Strenuous efforts have been employed for its control and prevention; however, with recent reports on mutated strains with much higher infectivity, transmissibility, and ability to evade immunity developed from previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, prevention alternatives must be prepared beforehand in case. We have perused over 128 recent works (found on Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect as of February 2023) on medicinal plants and their compounds for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and eventually reviewed 102 of them. The clinical application and the curative effect were reported high in China and in India. Accordingly, this review highlights the unprecedented opportunities offered by medicinal plants and their compounds, candidates as the therapeutic agent, against COVID-19 by acting as viral protein inhibitors and immunomodulator in (32 clinical trials and hundreds of in silico experiments) conjecture with modern science. Moreover, the associated foreseeable challenges for their viral outbreak management were discussed in comparison to synthetic drugs.
Giordano et al., Food Plant Secondary Metabolites Antiviral Activity and Their Possible Roles in SARS-CoV-2 Treatment: An Overview, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062470
Natural products and plant extracts exhibit many biological activities, including that related to the defense mechanisms against parasites. Many studies have investigated the biological functions of secondary metabolites and reported evidence of antiviral activities. The pandemic emergencies have further increased the interest in finding antiviral agents, and efforts are oriented to investigate possible activities of secondary plant metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we performed a comprehensive analysis of studies through in silico and in vitro investigations, also including in vivo applications and clinical trials, to evaluate the state of knowledge on the antiviral activities of secondary metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a particular focus on natural compounds present in food plants. Although some of the food plant secondary metabolites seem to be useful in the prevention and as a possible therapeutic management against SARS-CoV-2, up to now, no molecules can be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, more research is needed.
Rahman et al., In silico investigation and potential therapeutic approaches of natural products for COVID-19: Computer-aided drug design perspective, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.929430
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a substantial number of deaths around the world, making it a serious and pressing public health hazard. Phytochemicals could thus provide a rich source of potent and safer anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. The absence of approved treatments or vaccinations continues to be an issue, forcing the creation of new medicines. Computer-aided drug design has helped to speed up the drug research and development process by decreasing costs and time. Natural compounds like terpenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, and flavonoid derivatives have a perfect impact against viral replication and facilitate future studies in novel drug discovery. This would be more effective if collaboration took place between governments, researchers, clinicians, and traditional medicine practitioners’ safe and effective therapeutic research. Through a computational approach, this study aims to contribute to the development of effective treatment methods by examining the mechanisms relating to the binding and subsequent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The in silico method has also been employed to determine the most effective drug among the mentioned compound and their aquatic, nonaquatic, and pharmacokinetics’ data have been analyzed. The highest binding energy has been reported -11.4 kcal/mol against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (7MBG) in L05. Besides, all the ligands are non-carcinogenic, excluding L04, and have good water solubility and no AMES toxicity. The discovery of preclinical drug candidate molecules and the structural elucidation of pharmacological therapeutic targets have expedited both structure-based and ligand-based drug design. This review article will assist physicians and researchers in realizing the enormous potential of computer-aided drug design in the design and discovery of therapeutic molecules, and hence in the treatment of deadly diseases.
Heleno et al., Plant Extracts and SARS-CoV-2: Research and Applications, Life, doi:10.3390/life13020386
The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has brought upon the world an unprecedented challenge. During its acute dissemination, a rush for vaccines started, making the scientific community come together and contribute to the development of efficient therapeutic agents and vaccines. Natural products have been used as sources of individual molecules and extracts capable of inhibiting/neutralizing several microorganisms, including viruses. Natural extracts have shown effective results against the coronavirus family, when first tested in the outbreak of SARS-CoV-1, back in 2002. In this review, the relationship between natural extracts and SARS-CoV is discussed, while also providing insight into misinformation regarding the use of plants as possible therapeutic agents. Studies with plant extracts on coronaviruses are presented, as well as the main inhibition assays and trends for the future regarding the yet unknown long-lasting effects post-infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Flores-Félix et al., Consumption of Phenolic-Rich Food and Dietary Supplements as a Key Tool in SARS-CoV-19 Infection, Foods, doi:10.3390/foods10092084
The first cases of COVID-19, which is caused by the SARS-CoV-2, were reported in December 2019. The vertiginous worldwide expansion of SARS-CoV-2 caused the collapse of health systems in several countries due to the high severity of the COVID-19. In addition to the vaccines, the search for active compounds capable of preventing and/or fighting the infection has been the main direction of research. Since the beginning of this pandemic, some evidence has highlighted the importance of a phenolic-rich diet as a strategy to reduce the progression of this disease, including the severity of the symptoms. Some of these compounds (e.g., curcumin, gallic acid or quercetin) already showed capacity to limit the infection of viruses by inhibiting entry into the cell through its binding to protein Spike, regulating the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, disrupting the replication in cells by inhibition of viral proteases, and/or suppressing and modulating the host’s immune response. Therefore, this review intends to discuss the most recent findings on the potential of phenolics to prevent SARS-CoV-2.
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