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Bromocriptine for COVID-19

Bromocriptine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Masoudi-Sobhanzadeh et al., Structure-based drug repurposing against COVID-19 and emerging infectious diseases: methods, resources and discoveries, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbab113
AbstractTo attain promising pharmacotherapies, researchers have applied drug repurposing (DR) techniques to discover the candidate medicines to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Although many DR approaches have been introduced for treating different diseases, only structure-based DR (SBDR) methods can be employed as the first therapeutic option against the COVID-19 pandemic because they rely on the rudimentary information about the diseases such as the sequence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 genome. Hence, to try out new treatments for the disease, the first attempts have been made based on the SBDR methods which seem to be among the proper choices for discovering the potential medications against the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Given the importance of SBDR approaches, in the present review, well-known SBDR methods are summarized, and their merits are investigated. Then, the databases and software applications, utilized for repurposing the drugs against COVID-19, are introduced. Besides, the identified drugs are categorized based on their targets. Finally, a comparison is made between the SBDR approaches and other DR methods, and some possible future directions are proposed.
Malar et al., Network analysis-guided drug repurposing strategies targeting LPAR receptor in the interplay of COVID, Alzheimer’s, and diabetes, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-024-55013-9
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has greatly affected global health. Emerging evidence suggests a complex interplay between Alzheimer’s disease (AD), diabetes (DM), and COVID-19. Given COVID-19’s involvement in the increased risk of other diseases, there is an urgent need to identify novel targets and drugs to combat these interconnected health challenges. Lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs), belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor family, have been implicated in various pathological conditions, including inflammation. In this regard, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of LPARs (specifically LPAR1, 3, 6) in the tri-directional relationship between AD, DM, and COVID-19 through network analysis, as well as explore the therapeutic potential of selected anti-AD, anti-DM drugs as LPAR, SPIKE antagonists. We used the Coremine Medical database to identify genes related to DM, AD, and COVID-19. Furthermore, STRING analysis was used to identify the interacting partners of LPAR1, LPAR3, and LPAR6. Additionally, a literature search revealed 78 drugs on the market or in clinical studies that were used for treating either AD or DM. We carried out docking analysis of these drugs against the LPAR1, LPAR3, and LPAR6. Furthermore, we modeled the LPAR1, LPAR3, and LPAR6 in a complex with the COVID-19 spike protein and performed a docking study of selected drugs with the LPAR-Spike complex. The analysis revealed 177 common genes implicated in AD, DM, and COVID-19. Protein–protein docking analysis demonstrated that LPAR (1,3 & 6) efficiently binds with the viral SPIKE protein, suggesting them as targets for viral infection. Furthermore, docking analysis of the anti-AD and anti-DM drugs against LPARs, SPIKE protein, and the LPARs-SPIKE complex revealed promising candidates, including lupron, neflamapimod, and nilotinib, stating the importance of drug repurposing in the drug discovery process. These drugs exhibited the ability to bind and inhibit the LPAR receptor activity and the SPIKE protein and interfere with LPAR-SPIKE protein interaction. Through a combined network and targeted-based therapeutic intervention approach, this study has identified several drugs that could be repurposed for treating COVID-19 due to their expected interference with LPAR(1, 3, and 6) and spike protein complexes. In addition, it can also be hypothesized that the co-administration of these identified drugs during COVID-19 infection may not only help mitigate the impact of the virus but also potentially contribute to the prevention or management of post-COVID complications related to AD and DM.
Sokouti, B., A review on in silico virtual screening methods in COVID-19 using anticancer drugs and other natural/chemical inhibitors, Exploration of Targeted Anti-tumor Therapy, doi:10.37349/etat.2023.00177
The present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic scenario has posed a difficulty for cancer treatment. Even under ideal conditions, malignancies like small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are challenging to treat because of their fast development and early metastases. The treatment of these patients must not be jeopardized, and they must be protected as much as possible from the continuous spread of the COVID-19 infection. Initially identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the contagious coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Finding inhibitors against the druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 has been a significant focus of research efforts across the globe. The primary motivation for using molecular modeling tools against SARS-CoV-2 was to identify candidates for use as therapeutic targets from a pharmacological database. In the published study, scientists used a combination of medication repurposing and virtual drug screening methodologies to target many structures of SARS-CoV-2. This virus plays an essential part in the maturation and replication of other viruses. In addition, the total binding free energy and molecular dynamics (MD) modeling findings showed that the dynamics of various medications and substances were stable; some of them have been tested experimentally against SARS-CoV-2. Different virtual screening (VS) methods have been discussed as potential means by which the evaluated medications that show strong binding to the active site might be repurposed for use against SARS-CoV-2.
Issac et al., Improved And Optimized Drug Repurposing For The SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.03.24.485618
The active global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused more than 426 million cases and 5.8 million deaths worldwide. The development of completely new drugs for such a novel disease is a challenging, time intensive process. Despite researchers around the world working on this task, no effective treatments have been developed yet. This emphasizes the importance of drug repurposing, where treatments are found among existing drugs that are meant for different diseases. A common approach to this is based on \emph{knowledge graphs}, that condense relationships between entities like drugs, diseases and genes. Graph neural networks (GNNs) can then be used for the task at hand by predicting links in such knowledge graphs. Expanding on state-of-the-art GNN research, Doshi {\sl et al.} recently developed the \drcov \ model. We further extend their work using additional output interpretation strategies. The best aggregation strategy derives a top-100 ranking of 8,070 candidate drugs, 32 of which are currently being tested in COVID-19-related clinical trials. Moreover, we present an alternative application for the model, the generation of additional candidates based on a given pre-selection of drug candidates using collaborative filtering. In addition, we improved the implementation of the \drcov \ model by significantly shortening the inference and pre-processing time by exploiting data-parallelism. As drug repurposing is a task that requires high computation and memory resources, we further accelerate the post-processing phase using a new emerging hardware --- we propose a new approach to leverage the use of high-capacity Non-Volatile Memory for aggregate drug ranking.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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