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Betulinic acid for COVID-19

Betulinic acid has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Al-Jamal et al., Treating COVID-19 with Medicinal Plants: Is It Even Conceivable? A Comprehensive Review, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v16030320
In 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) challenged the world with a global outbreak that led to millions of deaths worldwide. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the symptomatic manifestation of this virus, which can range from flu-like symptoms to utter clinical complications and even death. Since there was no clear medicine that could tackle this infection or lower its complications with minimal adverse effects on the patients’ health, the world health organization (WHO) developed awareness programs to lower the infection rate and limit the fast spread of this virus. Although vaccines have been developed as preventative tools, people still prefer going back to traditional herbal medicine, which provides remarkable health benefits that can either prevent the viral infection or limit the progression of severe symptoms through different mechanistic pathways with relatively insignificant side effects. This comprehensive review provides scientific evidence elucidating the effect of 10 different plants against SARS-CoV-2, paving the way for further studies to reconsider plant-based extracts, rich in bioactive compounds, into more advanced clinical assessments in order to identify their impact on patients suffering from COVID-19.
Ramezani et al., Effect of herbal compounds on inhibition of coronavirus; A systematic review and meta-analysis, Authorea, Inc., doi:10.22541/au.170668000.04030360/v1
The outbreak of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) has been transferred exponentially. There are many articles that have found the inhibitory effect of plant extracts or plant compounds on the coronavirus family. In this study, we want to use systematic review and meta-analysis to answer the question of which herbal compound can be more effective against the coronavirus. The present study is based on the guidelines for conducting meta-analyzes. An extensive search was conducted in the electronic database, and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, articles were selected and data screening was performed. Quality control of articles was performed. Data analysis was carried out in STATA software. The results showed that alkaloid compounds had a good effect in controlling the coronavirus and reducing viral titer. Trypthantrin, Sambucus extract, S. cusia extract, Boceprevir and Indigole B, dioica agglutinin urtica had a good effect on reducing the virus titer but their selectivity index has not been reported and it is recommended to determine for these compounds. Also among the compounds that had the greatest effect on virus inhibition, including Saikosaponins B2, SaikosaponinsD, SaikosaponinsA and Phillyrin, had an acceptable selectivity index greater than 10. Andrographolide showed the highest selectivity index on SARS-COV2, while virus titration and virus inhibition were not reported. The small number of studies that used alkaloid compounds was one of the limitations and it is suggested to investigate the effect of more alkaloid compounds against the coronavirus for verifying its effect.
Liu et al., Plant‐derived compounds as potential leads for new drug development targeting COVID‐19, Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.8105
AbstractCOVID‐19, which was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, is a respiratory illness caused by a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). Although some patients infected with COVID‐19 can remain asymptomatic, most experience a range of symptoms that can be mild to severe. Common symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of taste or smell and muscle aches. In severe cases, complications can arise including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organ failure and even death, particularly in older adults or individuals with underlying health conditions. Treatments for COVID‐19 include remdesivir, which has been authorised for emergency use in some countries, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used to reduce inflammation in severe cases. Biological drugs including monoclonal antibodies, such as casirivimab and imdevimab, have also been authorised for emergency use in certain situations. While these treatments have improved the outcome for many patients, there is still an urgent need for new treatments. Medicinal plants have long served as a valuable source of new drug leads and may serve as a valuable resource in the development of COVID‐19 treatments due to their broad‐spectrum antiviral activity. To date, various medicinal plant extracts have been studied for their cellular and molecular interactions, with some demonstrating anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 activity in vitro. This review explores the evaluation and potential therapeutic applications of these plants against SARS‐CoV‐2. This review summarises the latest evidence on the activity of different plant extracts and their isolated bioactive compounds against SARS‐CoV‐2, with a focus on the application of plant‐derived compounds in animal models and in human studies.
Naderi Beni et al., In silico studies of anti-oxidative and hot temperament-based phytochemicals as natural inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0295014
Main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is considered one of the key targets due to its role in viral replication. The use of traditional phytochemicals is an important part of complementary/alternative medicine, which also accompany the concept of temperament, where it has been shown that hot medicines cure cold and cold medicines cure hot, with cold and hot pattern being associated with oxidative and anti-oxidative properties in medicine, respectively. Molecular docking in this study has demonstrated that a number of anti-oxidative and hot temperament-based phytochemicals have high binding affinities to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, both in the monomeric and dimeric deposited states of the protein. The highest ranking phytochemicals identified in this study included savinin, betulinic acid and curcumin. Complexes of savinin, betulinic acid, curcumin as well as Nirmatrelvir (the only approved inhibitor, used for comparison) bound to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro were further subjected to molecular dynamics simulations. Subsequently, RMSD, RMSF, Rg, number of hydrogen bonds, binding free energies and residue contributions (using MM-PBSA) and buried surface area (BSA), were analysed. The computational results suggested high binding affinities of savinin, betulinic acid and curcumin to both the monomeric and dimeric deposited states of Mpro, while highlighting the lower binding energy of betulinic acid in comparison with savinin and curcumin and even Nirmatrelvir, leading to a greater stability of the betulinic acid-SARS-CoV-2 Mpro complex. Overall, based on the increasing mutation rate in the spike protein and the fact that the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro remains highly conserved, this study provides an insight into the use of phytochemicals against COVID-19 and other coronavirus diseases.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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