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BC-11 for COVID-19

BC-11 has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Le et al., Structural understanding of SARS-CoV-2 virus entry to host cells, Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, doi:10.3389/fmolb.2023.1288686
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major global health concern associated with millions of fatalities worldwide. Mutant variants of the virus have further exacerbated COVID-19 mortality and infection rates, emphasizing the urgent need for effective preventive strategies. Understanding the viral infection mechanism is crucial for developing therapeutics and vaccines. The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells is a key step in the infection pathway and has been targeted for drug development. Despite numerous reviews of COVID-19 and the virus, there is a lack of comprehensive reviews focusing on the structural aspects of viral entry. In this review, we analyze structural changes in Spike proteins during the entry process, dividing the entry process into prebinding, receptor binding, proteolytic cleavage, and membrane fusion steps. By understanding the atomic-scale details of viral entry, we can better target the entry step for intervention strategies. We also examine the impacts of mutations in Spike proteins, including the Omicron variant, on viral entry. Structural information provides insights into the effects of mutations and can guide the development of therapeutics and vaccines. Finally, we discuss available structure-based approaches for the development of therapeutics and vaccines. Overall, this review provides a detailed analysis of the structural aspects of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry, highlighting its significance in the development of therapeutics and vaccines against COVID-19. Therefore, our review emphasizes the importance of structural information in combating SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Farkaš et al., A Tale of Two Proteases: MPro and TMPRSS2 as Targets for COVID-19 Therapies, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph16060834
Considering the importance of the 2019 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulting in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an overview of two proteases that play an important role in the infection by SARS-CoV-2, the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (MPro) and the host transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), is presented in this review. After summarising the viral replication cycle to identify the relevance of these proteases, the therapeutic agents already approved are presented. Then, this review discusses some of the most recently reported inhibitors first for the viral MPro and next for the host TMPRSS2 explaining the mechanism of action of each protease. Afterward, some computational approaches to design novel MPro and TMPRSS2 inhibitors are presented, also describing the corresponding crystallographic structures reported so far. Finally, a brief discussion on a few reports found some dual-action inhibitors for both proteases is given. This review provides an overview of two proteases of different origins (viral and human host) that have become important targets for the development of antiviral agents to treat COVID-19.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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