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Bafilomycin A1 for COVID-19

Bafilomycin A1 has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Gordon et al., A SARS-CoV-2-Human Protein-Protein Interaction Map Reveals Drug Targets and Potential Drug-Repurposing, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.22.002386
ABSTRACTAn outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 respiratory disease, has infected over 290,000 people since the end of 2019, killed over 12,000, and caused worldwide social and economic disruption1,2. There are currently no antiviral drugs with proven efficacy nor are there vaccines for its prevention. Unfortunately, the scientific community has little knowledge of the molecular details of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To illuminate this, we cloned, tagged and expressed 26 of the 29 viral proteins in human cells and identified the human proteins physically associated with each using affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS), which identified 332 high confidence SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Among these, we identify 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by 69 existing FDA-approved drugs, drugs in clinical trials and/or preclinical compounds, that we are currently evaluating for efficacy in live SARS-CoV-2 infection assays. The identification of host dependency factors mediating virus infection may provide key insights into effective molecular targets for developing broadly acting antiviral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 and other deadly coronavirus strains.
Patten et al., Identification of druggable host targets needed for SARS-CoV-2 infection by combined pharmacological evaluation and cellular network directed prioritization both in vitro and in vivo, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.20.440626
AbstractIdentification of host factors contributing to replication of viruses and resulting disease progression remains a promising approach for development of new therapeutics. Here, we evaluated 6710 clinical and preclinical compounds targeting 2183 host proteins by immunocytofluorescence-based screening to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection inhibitors. Computationally integrating relationships between small molecule structure, dose-response antiviral activity, host target and cell interactome networking produced cellular networks important for infection. This analysis revealed 389 small molecules, >12 scaffold classes and 813 host targets with micromolar to low nanomolar activities. From these classes, representatives were extensively evaluated for mechanism of action in stable and primary human cell models, and additionally against Beta and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants and MERS-CoV. One promising candidate, obatoclax, significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral lung load in mice. Ultimately, this work establishes a rigorous approach for future pharmacological and computational identification of novel host factor dependencies and treatments for viral diseases.
Shang et al., Inhibitors of endosomal acidification suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication and relieve viral pneumonia in hACE2 transgenic mice, Virology Journal, doi:10.1186/s12985-021-01515-1
Abstract Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and broke out as a global pandemic in late 2019. The acidic pH environment of endosomes is believed to be essential for SARS-CoV-2 to be able to enter cells and begin replication. However, the clinical use of endosomal acidification inhibitors, typically chloroquine, has been controversial with this respect. Methods In this study, RT-qPCR method was used to detect the SARS-CoV-2N gene to evaluate viral replication. The CCK-8 assay was also used to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of SARS-CoV-2. In situ hybridization was used to examine the distribution of the SARS-CoV-2 gene in lung tissues. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was also used to evaluate virus-associated pathological changes in lung tissues. Results In this study, analysis showed that endosomal acidification inhibitors, including chloroquine, bafilomycin A1 and NH4CL, significantly reduced the viral yields of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6, Huh-7 and 293T-ACE2 cells. Chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 also improved the viability and proliferation of Vero E6 cells after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, in the hACE2 transgenic mice model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 reduced viral replication in lung tissues and alleviated viral pneumonia with reduced inflammatory exudation and infiltration in peribronchiolar and perivascular tissues, as well as improved structures of alveolar septum and pulmonary alveoli. Conclusions Our research investigated the antiviral effects of endosomal acidification inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 in several infection models and provides an experimental basis for further mechanistic studies and drug development.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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