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APY0201 for COVID-19

APY0201 has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Patten et al., Identification of druggable host targets needed for SARS-CoV-2 infection by combined pharmacological evaluation and cellular network directed prioritization both in vitro and in vivo, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.20.440626
AbstractIdentification of host factors contributing to replication of viruses and resulting disease progression remains a promising approach for development of new therapeutics. Here, we evaluated 6710 clinical and preclinical compounds targeting 2183 host proteins by immunocytofluorescence-based screening to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection inhibitors. Computationally integrating relationships between small molecule structure, dose-response antiviral activity, host target and cell interactome networking produced cellular networks important for infection. This analysis revealed 389 small molecules, >12 scaffold classes and 813 host targets with micromolar to low nanomolar activities. From these classes, representatives were extensively evaluated for mechanism of action in stable and primary human cell models, and additionally against Beta and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants and MERS-CoV. One promising candidate, obatoclax, significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral lung load in mice. Ultimately, this work establishes a rigorous approach for future pharmacological and computational identification of novel host factor dependencies and treatments for viral diseases.
Murer et al., Arrayed multicycle drug screens identify broadly acting chemical inhibitors for repurposing against SARS-CoV-2, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.30.437771
AbstractCoronaviruses (CoVs) circulate in humans and animals, and expand their host range by zoonotic and anthroponotic transmissions. Endemic human CoVs, such as 229E and OC43 cause limited respiratory disease, and elicit short term anti-viral immunity favoring recurrent infections. Yet, severe acute respir-atory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 spreads across the globe with unprecedented impact on societies and economics. The world lacks broadly effective and affordable anti-viral agents to fight the pandemic and reduce the death toll. Here, we developed an image-based multicycle replication assay for focus for-mation of α-coronavirus hCoV-229E-eGFP infected cells for screening with a chemical library of 5440 compounds arrayed in 384 well format. The library contained about 39% clinically used compounds, 26% in phase I, II or III clinical trials, and 34% in preclinical development. Hits were counter-selected against toxicity, and challenged with hCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 in tissue culture and human bronchial and nasal epithelial explant cultures from healthy donors. Fifty three compounds inhibited hCoV-229E-GFP, 39 of which at 50% effective concentrations (EC50) < 2μM, and were at least 2-fold separated from toxicity. Thirty nine of the 53 compounds inhibited the replication of hCoV-OC43, while SARS-CoV-2 was inhibited by 11 compounds in at least two of four tested cell lines. Six of the 11 compounds are FDA-approved, one of which is used in mouth wash formulations, and five are systemic and orally available. Here, we demonstrate that methylene blue (MB) and mycophenolic acid (MPA), two broadly available low cost compounds, strongly inhibited shedding of infectious SARS-CoV-2 at the apical side of the cultures, in either pre- or post-exposure regimens, with somewhat weaker effects on viral RNA release indicated by RT-qPCR measurements. Our study illustrates the power of full cycle screens in repurposing clinical compounds against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, both MB and MPA reportedly act as immunosuppressants, making them interesting candidates to counteract the cytokine storms affecting COVID-19 patients.
Bakowski et al., Drug repurposing screens identify chemical entities for the development of COVID-19 interventions, Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23328-0
AbstractThe ongoing pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), necessitates strategies to identify prophylactic and therapeutic drug candidates for rapid clinical deployment. Here, we describe a screening pipeline for the discovery of efficacious SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. We screen a best-in-class drug repurposing library, ReFRAME, against two high-throughput, high-content imaging infection assays: one using HeLa cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 and the other using lung epithelial Calu-3 cells. From nearly 12,000 compounds, we identify 49 (in HeLa-ACE2) and 41 (in Calu-3) compounds capable of selectively inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 replication. Notably, most screen hits are cell-line specific, likely due to different virus entry mechanisms or host cell-specific sensitivities to modulators. Among these promising hits, the antivirals nelfinavir and the parent of prodrug MK-4482 possess desirable in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic and human safety profiles, and both reduce SARS-CoV-2 replication in an orthogonal human differentiated primary cell model. Furthermore, MK-4482 effectively blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection in a hamster model. Overall, we identify direct-acting antivirals as the most promising compounds for drug repurposing, additional compounds that may have value in combination therapies, and tool compounds for identification of viral host cell targets.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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