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Amitriptyline for COVID-19

Amitriptyline has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Kutkat et al., Robust antiviral activity of commonly prescribed antidepressants against emerging coronaviruses: in vitro and in silico drug repurposing studies, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-17082-6
AbstractDuring the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, symptoms of depression are commonly documented among both symptomatic and asymptomatic quarantined COVID-19 patients. Despite that many of the FDA-approved drugs have been showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro and remarkable efficacy against COVID-19 in clinical trials, no pharmaceutical products have yet been declared to be fully effective for treating COVID-19. Antidepressants comprise five major drug classes for the treatment of depression, neuralgia, migraine prophylaxis, and eating disorders which are frequently reported symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Herein, the efficacy of eight frequently prescribed FDA-approved antidepressants on the inhibition of both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV was assessed. Additionally, the in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-MERS-CoV activities were evaluated. Furthermore, molecular docking studies have been performed for these drugs against the spike (S) and main protease (Mpro) pockets of both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Results showed that Amitriptyline, Imipramine, Paroxetine, and Sertraline had potential anti-viral activities. Our findings suggested that the aforementioned drugs deserve more in vitro and in vivo studies targeting COVID-19 especially for those patients suffering from depression.
Alkafaas et al., Molecular docking as a tool for the discovery of novel insight about the role of acid sphingomyelinase inhibitors in SARS- CoV-2 infectivity, BMC Public Health, doi:10.1186/s12889-024-17747-z
AbstractRecently, COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants, caused > 6 million deaths. Symptoms included respiratory strain and complications, leading to severe pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 attaches to the ACE-2 receptor of the host cell membrane to enter. Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 entry may effectively inhibit infection. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) is a lysosomal protein that catalyzes the conversion of sphingolipid (sphingomyelin) to ceramide. Ceramide molecules aggregate/assemble on the plasma membrane to form “platforms” that facilitate the viral intake into the cell. Impairing the ASMase activity will eventually disrupt viral entry into the cell. In this review, we identified the metabolism of sphingolipids, sphingolipids' role in cell signal transduction cascades, and viral infection mechanisms. Also, we outlined ASMase structure and underlying mechanisms inhibiting viral entry 40 with the aid of inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase (FIASMAs). In silico molecular docking analyses of FIASMAs with inhibitors revealed that dilazep (S = − 12.58 kcal/mol), emetine (S = − 11.65 kcal/mol), pimozide (S = − 11.29 kcal/mol), carvedilol (S = − 11.28 kcal/mol), mebeverine (S = − 11.14 kcal/mol), cepharanthine (S = − 11.06 kcal/mol), hydroxyzin (S = − 10.96 kcal/mol), astemizole (S = − 10.81 kcal/mol), sertindole (S = − 10.55 kcal/mol), and bepridil (S = − 10.47 kcal/mol) have higher inhibition activity than the candidate drug amiodarone (S = − 10.43 kcal/mol), making them better options for inhibition.
Cesar-Silva et al., Lipid compartments and lipid metabolism as therapeutic targets against coronavirus, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1268854
Lipids perform a series of cellular functions, establishing cell and organelles’ boundaries, organizing signaling platforms, and creating compartments where specific reactions occur. Moreover, lipids store energy and act as secondary messengers whose distribution is tightly regulated. Disruption of lipid metabolism is associated with many diseases, including those caused by viruses. In this scenario, lipids can favor virus replication and are not solely used as pathogens’ energy source. In contrast, cells can counteract viruses using lipids as weapons. In this review, we discuss the available data on how coronaviruses profit from cellular lipid compartments and why targeting lipid metabolism may be a powerful strategy to fight these cellular parasites. We also provide a formidable collection of data on the pharmacological approaches targeting lipid metabolism to impair and treat coronavirus infection.
Darquennes et al., Association between Functional Inhibitors of Acid Sphingomyelinase (FIASMAs) and Reduced Risk of Death in COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph14030226
Given the current scarcity of curative treatment of COVID-19, the search for an effective treatment modality among all available medications has become a priority. This study aimed at investigating the role of functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase (FIASMAs) on in-hospital COVID-19 mortality. In this retrospective cohort study, we included adult in-patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between 1 March 2020 and 31 August 2020 with definite outcomes (discharged hospital or deceased) from Erasme Hospital (Brussels, Belgium). We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. We included 350 patients (205 males, 145 females) with a mean age of 63.24 years (SD = 17.4, range: 21–96 years). Seventy-two patients died in the hospital and 278 were discharged. The four most common comorbidities were hypertension (184, 52.6%), chronic cardiac disease (110, 31.4%), obesity (96, 27.8%) and diabetes (95, 27.1%). Ninety-three participants (26.6%) received a long-term prescription for FIASMAs. Among these, 60 (64.5%) received amlodipine. For FIASMAs status, multivariable regression showed increasing odds ratio (OR) for in-hospital deaths associated with older age (OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.07; p = 0.00015), and higher prevalence of malignant neoplasm (OR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.03–4.22; p = 0.039). Nonsignificant decreasing OR (0.53, 95% CI: 0.27–1.04; p = 0.064) was reported for FIASMA status. For amlodipine status, multivariable regression revealed increasing OR of in-hospital deaths associated with older age (OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02–1.07; p = 0.0009), higher prevalence of hypertension (OR 2.78, 95% CI: 1.33–5.79; p = 0.0062) and higher prevalence of malignant neoplasm (OR 2.71, 95% CI: 1.23–5.97; p = 0.013), then secondarily decreasing OR of in-hospital death associated with long-term treatment with amlodipine (OR 0.24, 95% CI: 0.09–0.62; p = 0.0031). Chronic treatment with amlodipine could be significantly associated with low mortality of COVID-19 in-patients.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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