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Amentoflavone for COVID-19

Amentoflavone has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Szabó et al., Natural products as a source of Coronavirus entry inhibitors, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2024.1353971
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant and lasting impact on the world. Four years on, despite the existence of effective vaccines, the continuous emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants remains a challenge for long-term immunity. Additionally, there remain few purpose-built antivirals to protect individuals at risk of severe disease in the event of future coronavirus outbreaks. A promising mechanism of action for novel coronavirus antivirals is the inhibition of viral entry. To facilitate entry, the coronavirus spike glycoprotein interacts with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on respiratory epithelial cells. Blocking this interaction and consequently viral replication may be an effective strategy for treating infection, however further research is needed to better characterize candidate molecules with antiviral activity before progressing to animal studies and clinical trials. In general, antiviral drugs are developed from purely synthetic compounds or synthetic derivatives of natural products such as plant secondary metabolites. While the former is often favored due to the higher specificity afforded by rational drug design, natural products offer several unique advantages that make them worthy of further study including diverse bioactivity and the ability to work synergistically with other drugs. Accordingly, there has recently been a renewed interest in natural product-derived antivirals in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review provides a summary of recent research into coronavirus entry inhibitors, with a focus on natural compounds derived from plants, honey, and marine sponges.
Liu et al., Plant‐derived compounds as potential leads for new drug development targeting COVID‐19, Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.8105
AbstractCOVID‐19, which was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, is a respiratory illness caused by a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). Although some patients infected with COVID‐19 can remain asymptomatic, most experience a range of symptoms that can be mild to severe. Common symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of taste or smell and muscle aches. In severe cases, complications can arise including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organ failure and even death, particularly in older adults or individuals with underlying health conditions. Treatments for COVID‐19 include remdesivir, which has been authorised for emergency use in some countries, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used to reduce inflammation in severe cases. Biological drugs including monoclonal antibodies, such as casirivimab and imdevimab, have also been authorised for emergency use in certain situations. While these treatments have improved the outcome for many patients, there is still an urgent need for new treatments. Medicinal plants have long served as a valuable source of new drug leads and may serve as a valuable resource in the development of COVID‐19 treatments due to their broad‐spectrum antiviral activity. To date, various medicinal plant extracts have been studied for their cellular and molecular interactions, with some demonstrating anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 activity in vitro. This review explores the evaluation and potential therapeutic applications of these plants against SARS‐CoV‐2. This review summarises the latest evidence on the activity of different plant extracts and their isolated bioactive compounds against SARS‐CoV‐2, with a focus on the application of plant‐derived compounds in animal models and in human studies.
Rafiq et al., A Comprehensive Update of Various Attempts by Medicinal Chemists to Combat COVID-19 through Natural Products, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28124860
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a global panic because of its continual evolution and recurring spikes. This serious malignancy is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the outbreak, millions of people have been affected from December 2019 till now, which has led to a great surge in finding treatments. Despite trying to handle the pandemic with the repurposing of some drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ivermectin, etc., against COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues its out-of-control spread. There is a dire need to identify a new regimen of natural products to combat the deadly viral disease. This article deals with the literature reports to date of natural products showing inhibitory activity towards SARS-CoV-2 through different approaches, such as in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies. Natural compounds targeting the proteins of SARS-CoV-2—the main protease (Mpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), spike proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), endoribonuclease, exoribonuclease, helicase, nucleocapsid, methyltransferase, adeno diphosphate (ADP) phosphatase, other nonstructural proteins, and envelope proteins—were extracted mainly from plants, and some were isolated from bacteria, algae, fungi, and a few marine organisms.
Strodel et al., High Throughput Virtual Screening to Discover Inhibitors of the Main Protease of the Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0161.v1
We use state-of-the-art computer-aided drug design (CADD) techniques to identify prospective inhibitors of the main protease enzyme, Mpro of the COVID-19 virus. With the high-resolution X-ray crystallography structure of this viral enzyme recently being solved, CADD provides a veritable tool for rapidly screening diverse sets of compounds with the aim of identifying ligands capable of forming energetically favorable complexes with Mpro . From our screening of 1,082,653 compounds derived from the ZINC, the DrugBank, and our in-house African natural product libraries, and a rescreening protocol incorporating enzyme dynamics via ensemble docking, we have been able to identify a range of prospective Mpro inhibitors, which include FDA-approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, as well as natural products. The top-ranking compounds are characterized by the presence of an extended ring system combined with functional groups that allow the ligands to adapt flexibly to the Mpro active site as, for example, present in the biflavonoid amentoflavone, one of the most promising compounds identified here. This particular chemical architecture leads to considerable stronger binding than found for reference compounds with in vitro demonstrated M pro inhibition and anticoronavirus activity. The compounds determined in this work thus represent a good starting point for the design of inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication.
Rahman et al., In silico investigation and potential therapeutic approaches of natural products for COVID-19: Computer-aided drug design perspective, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.929430
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a substantial number of deaths around the world, making it a serious and pressing public health hazard. Phytochemicals could thus provide a rich source of potent and safer anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. The absence of approved treatments or vaccinations continues to be an issue, forcing the creation of new medicines. Computer-aided drug design has helped to speed up the drug research and development process by decreasing costs and time. Natural compounds like terpenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, and flavonoid derivatives have a perfect impact against viral replication and facilitate future studies in novel drug discovery. This would be more effective if collaboration took place between governments, researchers, clinicians, and traditional medicine practitioners’ safe and effective therapeutic research. Through a computational approach, this study aims to contribute to the development of effective treatment methods by examining the mechanisms relating to the binding and subsequent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The in silico method has also been employed to determine the most effective drug among the mentioned compound and their aquatic, nonaquatic, and pharmacokinetics’ data have been analyzed. The highest binding energy has been reported -11.4 kcal/mol against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (7MBG) in L05. Besides, all the ligands are non-carcinogenic, excluding L04, and have good water solubility and no AMES toxicity. The discovery of preclinical drug candidate molecules and the structural elucidation of pharmacological therapeutic targets have expedited both structure-based and ligand-based drug design. This review article will assist physicians and researchers in realizing the enormous potential of computer-aided drug design in the design and discovery of therapeutic molecules, and hence in the treatment of deadly diseases.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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