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Alteplase for COVID-19

Alteplase has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Oliynyk et al., Impact of Alteplase on Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 and Pulmonary Embolism, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v15071513
COVID-19 is an independent risk factor for pulmonary embolism (PE). Little is known about alteplase therapy in this patient group. A retrospective study analyzed 74 patients with PE and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit in 2021. Patients with or without confirmed right heart thrombi (RHT) were treated with unfractionated heparin or alteplase. The mortality rate in patients with RHT treated with heparin was 100% compared to 37.9% and 55.2% in those treated with alteplase without RHT and alteplase with RHT, respectively. The risk of death in the alteplase group increased with delayed thrombolysis (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR) = 1.73 95% CI (confidence interval) 1.14–2.62), increased D-dimer concentration (p = 0.02, OR = 1.43 95% CI 1.06–1.93), and decreased PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p = 0.001, OR = 0.56 95% CI 0.41–0.78). The receiver operating characteristic method determined that a 1-day delay in thrombolytic treatment, D-dimer concentration >5.844 mg/L, and PaO2/FiO2 <144 mmHg predicted a fatal outcome. The risk of death in patients with severe COVID-19 with ARDS and PE increases with higher D-dimer levels, decreased PaO2/FiO2, and delayed thrombolytic treatment. Thrombolysis seems to be treatment of choice in severe COVID-19 with PE and RHT. It should be carried out as soon as possible after the diagnosis is established.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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