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“MATH+” Multi-Modal Hospital Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 Infection: Clinical and Scientific Rationale

Kory et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, doi:10.14740/jocmr4658
Feb 2022  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now with p = 0.00000064 from 45 studies, recognized in 17 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 81 treatments.
Review of the data supporting the MATH+ hospital treatment protocol for COVID-19.
Review covers vitamin C, melatonin, famotidine, zinc, fluvoxamine, and vitamin D.
Kory et al., 24 Feb 2022, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
This PaperZincAll
“MATH+” Multi-Modal Hospital Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 Infection: Clinical and Scientific Rationale
Pierre Kory, Ginfranco Umberto Meduri, Jose Iglesias, Joseph Varon, Flavio Adsuara Cadegiani, Paul E Marik
Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, doi:10.14740/jocmr4658
In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a severe respiratory illness caused by the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. The greatest impact that COVID-19 had was on intensive care units (ICUs), given that approximately 20% of hospitalized cases developed acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring ICU admission. Based on the assumption that COVID-19 represented a viral pneumonia and no anti-coronaviral therapy existed, nearly all national and international health care societies recommended "supportive care only" avoiding other therapies outside of randomized controlled trials, with a specific prohibition against the use of corticosteroids in treatment. However, early studies of COVID-19-associated ARF reported inexplicably high mortality rates, with frequent prolonged durations of mechanical ventilation (MV), even from centers expert in such supportive care strategies. These reports led the authors to form a clinical expert panel called the Front-Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance ( The panel collaboratively reviewed the emerging clinical, radiographic, and pathological reports of COVID-19 while initiating multiple discussions among a wide clinical network of front-line clinical ICU experts from initial outbreak areas in China, Italy, and New York. Based on the shared early impressions of "what was working and what wasn't working", the increasing medical journal publications and the rapidly accumulating personal clinical experiences with COVID-19 patients, a treatment protocol was created for the hospitalized patients based on the core therapies of methylprednisolone, ascorbic acid, thiamine, heparin and non-antiviral co-interventions (MATH+). This manuscript reviews the scientific and clinical rationale behind MATH+ based on published in-vitro, pre-clinical, and clinical data in support of each medicine, with a special emphasis of studies supporting their use in the treatment of patients with viral syndromes and COVID-19 specifically.
Financial Disclosure None to declare. Conflict of Interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. Author Contributions Dr. Meduri's contribution is the result of work supported with the resources and use of facilities at the Memphis VA Medical Center. The contents of this commentary do not represent the views of the US Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States Government. Author Note A version of this manuscript was published by The Journal of Intensive Care Medicine and was retracted by the editors after being published and highly cited. The article has been changed, the contested findings have been removed, and we have added the addition of antiandrogen therapy. It is noteworthy that this manuscript emphasizing the benefit of corticosteroid anticoagulant and antioxidant therapy in patients with COVID-19 was conceived of before the results of the recovery trial were known.
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