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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 76% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case -5% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Kazemi et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 202 patients in Iran Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.26) Kazemi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, May 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Comparison of the cardiovascular system, clinical condition, and laboratory results in COVID-19 patients with and without vitamin D insufficiency

Kazemi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-022-07438-8
May 2022  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 202 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on vitamin D levels.
This is the 134th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of death, 75.8% lower, RR 0.24, p = 0.26, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 1 of 75 (1.3%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 7 of 127 (5.5%), NNT 24.
risk of severe case, 4.8% higher, RR 1.05, p = 1.00, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 13 of 75 (17.3%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 21 of 127 (16.5%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Kazemi et al., 7 May 2022, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, mean age 56.0, 4 authors. Contact: (corresponding author),
This PaperVitamin DAll
Comparison of the cardiovascular system, clinical condition, and laboratory results in COVID-19 patients with and without vitamin D insufficiency
Erfan Kazemi, Ali Mansoursamaei, Marzieh Rohani-Rasaf, Hossein Sheibani
BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-022-07438-8
Background: Serum vitamin D levels may have a protective role against severe coronavirus disease 2019 . Studies have shown that deficiency in vitamin D may be a significant risk factor for poor outcomes. This study aims to compare the outcome and clinical condition of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection considering serum vitamin D levels. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 202 COVID-19 patients without known cardiovascular disease (reduced ejection fraction, uncontrolled arrhythmia, pericardial effusion, cardiac block, valvular disease, or hypertension) were included. Patients were divided into three groups of insufficient (< 30 ng/mL), normal (30 to 50 ng/mL), and high (> 50 ng/mL) serum vitamin D levels. Clinical outcome was defined as severe if invasive respiratory intervention and ICU admission was required. Results: The patients were divided into three groups based on their vitamin D level: 127 cases in the insufficient vitamin D group, 53 cases in the normal vitamin D group, and 22 cases in the high vitamin D group. The mean age of the population study was 56 years. Thirty-four patients had severe clinical outcomes. The distribution of this group was as follows: 21 patients in the insufficient vitamin D group (16.5%), eight patients in the normal vitamin D group (15.1%), and five patients in the high vitamin D group (22.7%); P = 0.74. No significant differences were found between the groups in terms of mortality rate (P = 0.46). Moreover, the mean of leukocytes (mean ± SD = 6873.5 ± 4236.2), ESR (mean ± SD = 38.42 ± 26.7), and CPK-MB (mean ± SD = 63 ± 140.7) were higher in the insufficient vitamin D group, but it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The finding of the present study showed that vitamin D could not make a significant difference in cardiovascular systems, laboratory results, and severity of the disease in COVID-19 patients.
Abbreviations Author contributions EK and AM gathered the required data. AM, EK, and HSh reviewed the literature. HSh and MRR interpreted the laboratory and clinical findings. All authors participated in writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate This project was approved by the Ethical Committee of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran. The study was conducted according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent was waived by the Ethics Committee as no intervention was done, and informed consent is routinely obtained from the patients at our hospital upon admission to receive medical care and diagnostic procedures. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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