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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 26% Improvement Relative Risk N-acetylcysteine  Izquierdo et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with N-acetylcysteine beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 19,208 patients in Spain (March 2020 - January 2021) Lower mortality with N-acetylcysteine (p=0.00067) c19early.org Izquierdo et al., Science Progress, Jan 2022 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control

Use of N-Acetylcysteine at high doses as an oral treatment for patients hospitalized with COVID-19

Izquierdo et al., Science Progress, doi:10.1177/00368504221074574
Jan 2022  
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13th treatment shown to reduce risk in February 2021
 
*, now known with p = 0.000034 from 24 studies, recognized in 3 countries.
Lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, and cases.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 19,208 COVID+ hospitalized patients in Spain, 2,071 treated with high dose NAC, showing lower mortality with treatment. In multivariable analysis, authors adjust for corticosteroids, but do not adjust for HCQ use which was also significantly more common in the NAC group. NAC 600mg every 8 hours.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: significant unadjusted confounding possible.
risk of death, 25.6% lower, RR 0.74, p < 0.001, treatment 136 of 2,071 (6.6%), control 1,935 of 17,137 (11.3%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Izquierdo et al., 27 Jan 2022, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period 1 March, 2020 - 24 January, 2021.
This PaperN-acetylcys..All
Use of N-Acetylcysteine at high doses as an oral treatment for patients hospitalized with COVID-19
José Luis Izquierdo, Joan B Soriano, Yolanda González, Sara Lumbreras, Julio Ancochea, Christian Echeverry, José Miguel Rodríguez
Science Progress, doi:10.1177/00368504221074574
Infection by SARS-CoV-2 causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be associated with serious and life-threatening conditions, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Severity and mortality have been related to a cytokine storm, an imbalance of oxidative stress, and a pro-thrombotic state. We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study from a community-based large population of hospitalized COVID-19 PCR + patients admitted from March 01, 2020, to January 24, 2021, with integrated primary to tertiary care information in Castilla la Mancha, Spain. We
ORCID iDs José
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{ 'DOI': '10.1177/00368504221074574', 'ISSN': ['0036-8504', '2047-7163'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504221074574', 'abstract': '<jats:p> Infection by SARS-CoV-2 causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be ' 'associated with serious and life-threatening conditions, including acute respiratory distress ' 'syndrome (ARDS). Severity and mortality have been related to a cytokine storm, an imbalance ' 'of oxidative stress, and a pro-thrombotic state. </jats:p><jats:p> We conducted an ' 'observational retrospective cohort study from a community-based large population of ' 'hospitalized COVID-19 PCR\u2009+\u2009patients admitted from March 01, 2020, to January 24, ' '2021, with integrated primary to tertiary care information in Castilla la Mancha, Spain. We ' 'explored the potential benefits of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic ' 'drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administered orally in high doses (600\u2005mg every 8\u2005h), ' 'added to standard of care in COVID-19 patients by using the free text information contained ' 'in their electronic health records (EHRs). </jats:p><jats:p> Out of 19,208 patients with a ' 'diagnosis of COVID-19 hospitalized, we studied 2071 (10.8%) users of oral NAC at high doses. ' 'COVID-19 patients treated with NAC were older, predominantly male, and with more ' 'comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and COPD when compared with those ' 'not on NAC (all p\u2009&lt;\u20090.05). Despite greater baseline risk, use of NAC in COVID-19 ' 'patients was associated with significantly lower mortality (OR 0.56; 95%CI 0.47–0.67), a ' 'finding that remained significant in a multivariate analysis adjusting by baseline ' 'characteristics and concomitant use of corticosteroids. There were no significant differences ' 'with the use of NAC on the mean duration of hospitalization, admission to the intensive care ' 'unit or use of invasive mechanical ventilation. The observed association signaling to better ' 'relevant outcomes in COVID-19 patients treated with NAC at high doses should be further ' 'explored in other settings and populations and in randomized controlled trials. </jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['10.1177/00368504221074574'], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1671-2243', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Medicine and Medical Specialties, Universidad de ' 'Alcalá, Madrid, Spain'}, { 'name': 'Respiratory Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, ' 'Guadalajara, Spain'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Izquierdo', 'given': 'José Luis', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Respiratory Medicine, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, ' 'Madrid, Spain'}, {'name': 'Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain'}, { 'name': 'Respiratory Diseases Networking Biomedical Research Centre ' '(CIBERES), Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, ' 'Spain'}], 'family': 'Soriano', 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Late treatment
is less effective
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